Diversity At Quarry Bank Mill - History Around Us

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  • Diversity at Quarry Bank Mill
    • Types of People
      • Types of Jobs in the Factory
        • Overlookers
          • In charge of each room.
        • Mixers
          • Men and women who blended raw cotton fibers together
        • Carders
          • Men who worked the machines that straightened cotton fibers
        • Drawers and Rovers
          • Women and children in charge of the machines that drew out the cotton and added a loose twist
        • Bobbin Winders
          • Children who wound the spun thread onto the bobbins for the creel frame
        • Throstle Spinners
          • Women and children who worked on Arkwright's water frame or Throstles, which produced a strong warped thread.
        • Mule Spinners
          • Men and women who spun on Crompton's Mule which helped produce a finer thread.
        • Warpers/Beamers
          • Men who prepared the warp for the loom by winding onto a beam from a creel frame
        • Weavers
          • Men and women who operated the looms helped by children
        • Drawers
          • Men and women who drew the warp threads through the eyes and dents of the harness, making them evenly spaced and ready for weaving.
      • Role of Hannah Lightbody
        • Unitarian, influential in giving the workers exemplary conditions for the time.
        • Provided education for apprentices.
      • Owners: Greg Family
        • Samuel Greg
          • Founder of the Mill
        • Hannah Lightbody
          • Wife of Samuel Greg
        • Robert Hyde Greg
          • Son of Samuel  and Hannah Greg
        • Edward Hyde Greg
          • Son of Robert Hyde Greg
      • Child Labour Apprentices
        • Unpaid, worked overtime to pay off debt for things such as breaking plates
        • Ages 9 to 19
        • Worked for more than 10 hours a day and schooled in the evenings
        • Ate porridge, vegetables and and some days meat
        • Made to walk 2 miles for church service every Sunday regardless of weather conditions
    • Activies
      • Religious Worship
        • Church every sunday
        • Unitarian Values
      • Housing and shops
        • Housing
          • Each worker had a detached house with its own garden and privy.
            • Instead of workers paying rent, it was deducted from their wages.
              • Workers were also paid enough to have disposable income.
          • Instead of workers paying rent, it was deducted from their wages.
            • Workers were also paid enough to have disposable income.
          • Apprentices lived in the apprentice house.
        • Shops
          • Co-Op.
            • Sold staple foods: flour, meal, potatoes...
            • Workers were also able to raise livestock and sell them to the co-op for extra money.
      • Health
        • Peter Holland: Doctor was fully paid for by employer
          • Kept records of all treatments etc.
        • Injuries and disease
          • Hair and limbs could get stuck in the machines. Crushed limbs were often amputated.
          • Cotton eye
            • Dust got into the eyes due to poor ventilation resulting in swelling.
          • Cotton Lung
            • Dust was often breathed into the lungs resulting in the development of breathing difficulties.
          • Crawling around on their hands and knees often left many apprentices heavily deformed.
          • Rickets
            • A disease that often caused severe leg deformities, often a result of lack of vitamin D (from sunlight) / calcium.
          • Loss of hearing due to loud machinery
      • Types of Power
        • River Bollin
          • Wooden Overshot wheels 1801
            • Metal wheel 1807
              • Great Wheel 1818
        • Steam
          • River Bollin dried out in the Summer, so an auxiliary Boulton and Watt steam engine was introduced in 1810
            • Later superseded by the horizontal condensing engine in 1871
      • Manufacturing Process
        • Raw cotton shipped in from America to the docks of Liverpool and transported to Quarry Bank Mill via canal.
          • Spun/woven into textiles such as cloth.
            • Sold around the country.
      • Education and apprentices
        • Apprentices worked in the Mill for most of the day from early in the morning and schooled in the evenings.
          • Taught Literacy and later, mathematics.
          • Apprentices went to church every Sunday
        • Children were very suited for working in the textile industry because they were small and nimble.

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