Diversity and classification

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  • Diversity and Classification
    • Classification
      • Phylogeny
        • the stidy of the evolutionary history of groups of organisms. Tells us how closely related species are
        • phlogenetic tree
          • common ancestors are shown where branches diverge
      • Taxonomy
        • the science of classification
          • organising animals into groups
        • 8 taxa
          • Domain
          • kingdom
          • phylum
          • class
          • species
          • genus
          • family
          • order
      • Binomial System
        • nomenclature - naming system
        • first part is Genus second part is species
        • allows communication between scientists without confusion
    • Courtship
      • Carried out by organisms to attract a mate of the correct species
      • species specific
      • simple courtship behaviour
        • Releasing a chemical
        • using sound
        • visual displays
      • Complex courtship behaviour
        • dancing
        • building
      • can be used for classification
        • the more similar the behaviour the ore closely related the species
      • prevents interbreeding
      • reproduction more successful
    • DNA technology
      • genome sequencing
        • comparing DNA base sequences
        • represented via a percentage
      • comparing amino acid sequences
        • amino acids make polypeptide chains which are coded for by DNA bases
      • Immunological comparson
        • similar proteins will bind to the same antbodies
      • increases accuracy of measuring genetic diversity
        • previously genetic diversity was measured by observational differences such as eye colour
    • Variation
      • caused by genetic and environmental factors
      • population samples
        • too time consuming/ impossible to catch all individuals
        • random sample
          • avoid bias
          • random number generator
        • representative of whole population
    • bodiversty
      • the variety of living organisms in an area
      • local biodiversity
        • biodiversity of  a habitat such as a pond
      • global diversity
        • the variety of species on earth
      • species richness
        • the number of different species
      • index of diversity
        • d=N(N-1)/ En(n-1)
      • agriculture
        • farmers maximise crop production via methods which reduce biodiversity
          • woodland clearance
            • directly reduced type/number of species
            • destroys habitats and food sources
          • hedgerow removal
            • destroys habitats and food sources
            • directly reduced type/number of species
          • pesticides
            • kills animals which eat crops, reducing that species and those who feed off those pests
          • herbicides
            • kills plant species and affects those who feed off that weed
          • monoculture
            • only on type of plant grown
            • supports fewer organisms
        • conservation schemes
          • aim to increase biodiversity

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