Dissolution of monasteries and religious change from 1529

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  • Dissolution of  monasteries and religious change from 1529
    • Reasons for dissolution 1536-1540
      • Henry claimed it was due to corruption
        • Visitations influenced unfavourable reports
          • Clearly exaggerated but Henry probably believed them
        • Government said corrupt comatries could be put to better use
          • Such as colleges, schools or hospitals
      • Real reason = their wealth
        • Henry was in financial difficulty + needed the money
        • Valor Ecclesiasticus (report) clearly showed wealth of Church
    • Why dissolution was so easy
      • Monastic weaknesses
        • Most isolated + unarmed
        • Some persuaded they would be changed for better
          • Into colleges + hospitals
        • Most had no idea what was coming
          • Some thought they could pay a fine + be spared
      • Government strengths
        • Propaganda stressed wholesale dissolution was not intended
          • King just wanted to weed out corruption
        • Landowners saw chance to gain land
        • Abbots offered pensions
        • Monks + Nuns offered financial compensation
    • Impact of dissolution
      • 500 religious houses dissolved
      • Serious opposition in North England
        • Pilgrimage of Grace 1536
      • Huge land sale turnover
        • Got Crown money quick
          • No financial support longterm
      • Many monks + nuns left homeless
    • Amount of enthusiasm for religious change
      • Active support for Protestantism
        • Small scale but powerful
          • In 1530s when King became a reformer
      • Tyndale translated bible into English
        • Burnt at the stake
      • Lambert executed for denying real presence in 1539
      • Only a few bishops = clearly Protestant reformers in 1530s
        • They were arrested
      • Cranmer moved slowly in direction of doctrinal Protestantism
      • Cromwell = prime mover in break with Rome, dissolution of monasteries etc
      • King remained in control
      • Anne Boleyn sympathetic towards reform
    • Lukewarm response to religious change
      • Some believed changes only temporary
        • Erastians + Pragmatists
          • Believed King was influenced by evil councellors
      • Nobility remained loyal to the Crown
        • But they were not enthusiastic about changes
    • Active opposition to religious change
      • Passive
        • Thomas More opposed Henry's control of Church
          • Refused to sign Act of Succession with no reason
            • Executed
      • Holy Maid of Kent
        • Elizabeth Barton (a nun) had visions against Henry
          • Executed
      • Bishop Fisher
        • Henry's godfather
        • Spoke out in favour of Catherine
        • Carthusians
          • Denounced King's supremacy
        • Pilgrimage of Grace
          • Main reason = opposition to Henrican Reform
            • Also had problems with high taxation
          • 30,000 rebels
            • Led by Robert Aske
            • Gentry, landowners + peasants all involved
            • King able to raise 8,000 troops under Norfolk
            • Most serious rebellion in Tudor period
          • Reasons for failure
            • King + Norfolk appeared to agree with rebel demands
              • Rebels trusted + believed in the King
                • Henry never seriously considered what Rebels wanted
            • Did not spread
        • The Exeter Conspiracy 1538
          • Imaginary opposition
          • The men were probably not potting against Henry but victims of his paranoia
          • Those involved executed for treason




      Works really nicely with the 'test yourself' thing

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