attachment

disruption of attachment

privation

institutionalisation

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  • attachment
    • privation
      • never having an attachment figure
      • genie
      • czech twins
      • can use hodges and tizard again   (see institutionalisation)
    • disruption
      • having an attachment figure, then child spends time away
      • robertsons (JOHN)
        • case study
        • 17 months old
          • resisdential nursery while mother went into hospital
            • protests and anger ignored
            • cried pitifully for several days, longperiods of time
            • started to ignore his father on nightly visits
              • slowly became emotionally detattached
            • mother returns
              • john didn't want to know her, look at her and resisted mothers attempts to comfort him
        • PDD model
          • protest
          • despair
          • detattachment
    • institutionalisation
      • spending time in a resisential childrens home or orphanage
      • hodges and Tizard
        • 65 children until the age of 4
          • no attachment as staff discouraged from forming an attachment
        • at age 2, all children displayed unusual behaviour
          • fear of strangers
          • crying
          • disinhibited attachment
        • age 4
          • 25 went back to biological parents
            • more likely to display close attachment styles with adoptive parents, than the restored children
          • 33 adopted
            • more likely to display close attachment styles with adoptive parents, than the restored children
        • interviews conducted
          • with parents when children were 8
          • with children at age 16
        • effects of institualisation can be reversed if children are palced in a  loveing caring home

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