Sleep - disruption

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  • disruption of biological rhythms
    • Shift work and shift lag
      • Night workers – alert at night – out of line with natural rhythms
    • sleep
    • Decreased alertness
      • Night workers - Between midnight and 4am
        • Cortisol and body temp is lowest
    • Sleep deprivation
      • Worker that sleep by day = sleep problems
        • Interruptions like outside noise, and daylight - Reduced sleep quality
          • 1-2 hrs  less sleep - REM is affected
            • Poor sleep makes it harder for workers to stay awake
    • effects on health
      • Relationship between shift work and organ disease
        • 15 yrs < - 3x more likely to develop heart disease
          • Martino linked shift work with organ disease espc. Kidney
            • Due to direct effects of de-synchronisation or indirect effects, sleep disruption
    • jet travel and jet lag
      • Physiological effects
        • Biological rhythm not equipped to cope with sudden and large changes
          • Dorsal SCN takes several cycles to fully resynchronise
            • Winter et al - one day to each hour time lag
      • Performance decrement
        • America’s baseball teams - West coast were 3h behind
          • East coast experienced phase delay - West coast phase advance
            • teams travelling east to west won 44% games - West to east won 37%
      • Phase advance/Phase delay
        • Phase delay – like having a lie in (get up later)
          • Phase advance - getting up earlier
    • Individual differences
      • people who gave up shift work couldn’t cope and tended to have rhythms that changed a lot
        • Happy shift workers had unchanging rhythms
    • Shift work effects
      • Not just due to disruption of bio-rhythms
        • Associated with having to go to bed at unusual times
          • Social disruption
            • Divorce rates may be as high as 60% among all night shift workers
    • Jet lag
      • Affected by other factors
        • Individual may sleep badly because of worry about travelling
          • Alcohol, coffee, noise, annoying passengers, low cabin oxygen can be cumulative factors
    • reducing harmful effects
      • rotating shifts
        • More problems occur when people do rotating shifts
          • Non-fluctuating shifts less disruptive
            • Can get used to one sleep-wake pattern
              • Days off disrupt bio-rhythms
      • Forward rotating shifts
        • Easy on body and less damaging to workers health
          • Rotating workers shifts more quickly is better for health (in phase delay order)
      • Artificial lighting
        • Moderately effective in setting the rhythm
          • Also found that dim lighting doesn’t have this effect – it doesn’t reset rhythm
            • more than 24h rhythm using bright light pulses
      • Melatonin
        • if melatonin was taken near bedtime it was very effective, taken at the wrong time of day can delay adaptation
      • Social Customs
        • Can entrain bio-rhythms
          • Helps if you eat at the right time
            • Period of fasting followed by eating on new time schedule should help bio rhythms
      • Real world application – IDA
        • Research into shift work and jet lag is only important in its real life application
          • However most research involves lab experiments which lack realism which sucks because the importance is that it’s applicable
  • Biological rhythm not equipped to cope with sudden and large changes
    • Dorsal SCN takes several cycles to fully resynchronise
      • Winter et al - one day to each hour time lag

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