Unit 3: Solid Wastes - Incineration, Encapsulation and Vitrification

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  • Disposing of Solid Waste
    • Incineration
      • Reduces volume of waste for final disposal
      • Flammable materials burnt in purpose-built power stations (refuse-derived fuel)
      • CFCs removed by water spray 'scrubber' - water neutralised by lime
      • Chlorinated organic compounds produce dioxins - minimised by incinerating above 1000'C
      • Heavy metals removed by scrubbing and stored in high pH for insolubility
      • High air flow to reduce smoke production
      • Wet scrubbing removes flue gases (SO2)
    • Encapsulation - sealing waste in solid material to prevent its escape
    • Vitrification -encapsulating high level radioactive waste
      • Powdered radioactive waste mixed with molten glass
      • If glass shatters waste will still be in the fragments
      • Glass enclosed in sealed stainless-steel containers placed in cylindrical passages in a concrete building


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