Disorders

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  • Created by: AHBROWN
  • Created on: 03-12-13 09:03
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  • Disorders. (schizophrenia)
    • characteristics
      • anxiety disorders (phobias)
        • the extreme or irrational fear of something.
        • shaking
        • sweating
        • nausia
        • effecting daily routine e.g. going to work a different way even though the route is an hour longer.
      • psychotic disorders (schizophrenia)
        • paranoid
          • paranoia
          • hearing voices
          • Grandiose delusions (false beliefs)
        • disorganised
          • disorganised speech or thoughts
          • word salads
          • neologisms
          • inappropriate effect
        • catatonic  (type 2)
          • mainly negative sympotoms
          • no emotion
          • no motivation
          • tired
          • cataleptic stupour
        • simple
          • isolation
          • withdrawl
          • poor hygiene
      • affective disorder (depression)
        • cyclothamia: watered down version of bi-polar
          • hypomia: active loss of  sleep.
          • dysthamia: no appetite, lethargic, loss of libido.
        • bi-polar disorder
          • depressive stage: a person would be more down, maybe have suicidal thoughts.
        • loss of appetite
        • general low or down moods
        • lethergy
        • DSM: have to have 5 symptoms for at least 6 months before it can be diagnosed.
        • ICD: includes self harm and bleak optimism as symptoms.
    • explanations
      • biological
        • enlarged ventricles
        • increased brain matter in the medial temporal lobe
        • limbic system is smaller
        • reduced blood flow in the frontal cortex
        • excess of the nero-trasmitter dopmine
        • Gottsman study MZ and DZ twins.
        • heston  adoption study: 36 individuals with schizophrenic  mothers compared with matched control group 5/36 developed schizophrenia even though they were taken away from the mother with in three days of birth.
      • existential
        • people are labelled as schizophrenic to marginalise them.
        • people choose to become schizophrenic to escape the tyranny of their own lives.
        • Laing: schizophrenics are really suffering from ontological insecurity.
        • conspiritory model: psychiatry is a conspiricy to get rid of people whoa ren't like us.
        • the  psychedelic model: a natural way of healing alienation.
      • behvioural
        • people learn to be schizophrenic through classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning theory.
        • Liberman:  a review article looking at the research done looks at social skills of psychotics. Queen example.
        • wilder et al: 1 patient with schizophrenia . every time her made a bizzare statement the therapist would say "you shouldn't talk about ... so much. this maybe to stressfull lets take a break" and the would look away for 30 seconds. the only time the therapist would talk in the 30secs is if the patient said something relevent . bizzare vocalisation decreased over the 30 sessions
      • cognitive
        • attentional filters and schemas- schizophrenics can't use these making the world noisy and confusing.
        • Hemsly: someone with schizophrenia fail to utilise these schemas and therefore every situation is novel.
    • treatments
      • behavioural treatments: Paul and Lentz.
        • longitudinal study.
        • 82 severely psychotic patients in state hospitals in illinois.
        • 1) social learning based on a token economy.    2) milieu (community therapy)       3) institution (hospital) therapy.
        • SLT:  92.5% back in society milieu: 71% hospital 48%
      • biological treatments : Kane.
        • 28 subjects in remisson
        • 1)  given F Hydrochloride 2) given F deconate     3) placebo
        • no drug groups relapsed after 24 weeks however 7 did relapse from placebo.
      • cognitive treatments: Sensky.
        • CBT vs. non-specific befriending interventions.
        • 90 uk subjects.  not responded to drug therapy
        • no real  progress at first but after 9 months blind psychologist determined the CBT group had shown improvement in positive and negative symptoms
  • affective disorder (depression)
    • cyclothamia: watered down version of bi-polar
      • hypomia: active loss of  sleep.
      • dysthamia: no appetite, lethargic, loss of libido.
    • bi-polar disorder
      • depressive stage: a person would be more down, maybe have suicidal thoughts.
    • loss of appetite
    • general low or down moods
    • lethergy
    • DSM: have to have 5 symptoms for at least 6 months before it can be diagnosed.
    • ICD: includes self harm and bleak optimism as symptoms.

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