Digestive System mind map

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  • Digestive System
    • Small Intestine
      • absorption of nutrients
      • Food enters the duodenum
        • Where digestive juices are secreted & mixed with food from stomach
          • Contain bile from liver
            • nurtalises acidic acids and emulsifies fat globules into fat droplets and glycerol
      • Tryspsin, lipase, amylase & bicarbonate from the pancreas
      • Villi and Microvilli
        • increase SA of small intestine and microvilli further extend SA
        • Have rich blood supply
          • constantly takes absorbed nutrients away to keep diffusion gradient favorable for absorption
        • Lacteals associated with lymphatic system absorb fatty acids
    • Mouth and oesophagus
      • food is chewed and tounge pushes down the bolus to the back of mouth.
        • sensory nerves indicate swallowing reflex
      • soft palate is pulled up as vocal cords close larynx
      • larynx is pulled up and forward and is covered by epiglottis. bolus enters oesophagus
      • peristalsis send food to stomach
      • salivary glands
        • secretes saliva
          • keeps food moist
          • breaks down food
    • Stomach
      • makes hydrochloric acid to break down microorganisms
      • muscular contractions to further break down food
      • digestive enzymes
        • Gastric glands where gastric juices are
          • contain pepsin: acidic protease
            • hyrochloric acid- degrade and break down food, kill pathogens, acidic conditions for protease
          • mucus to line wall of stomach to protect from gastric juices
      • folds to allow for expansion
    • Liver
      • no way to replace liver completely successfully
      • involved in: proein synthesis, protein breakdown, storage/production of vitamins, production of bile
      • bile leaves liver via hepatic duct which is near gall bladder, where bile is stored
        • bile emulsifies fats so that they can be mixed with water and acted upon by enzymes
    • gall bladder
      • store excess and recycle bile so it can be used to digest later meals
    • Large intestine
      • remaining food enters after small intestine with most water ingested with food
        • water is now absorbed through walls of large intestine
      • natural bacteria of large intestine fulfills symbiotic and mutualistic relationship
        • bacteria get a warm environment and digested sugars
        • bacteria are vital for preventing infection and synthesizing vitamin K for us
        • more bacterial cells than human cells
    • Pancreas
      • secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine
      • produces insulin
      • pancreatic juices
        • sodium bicarbonate to neutalsie acid in stomach
        • pancreatic amylase digests starch to maltose
    • protease break down proteins into amino acids
    • lipases break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
    • amylase break down carbohydrates (starch) into glucose

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