Digestive system

  • Created by: anyaw
  • Created on: 21-05-18 10:29
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  • Digestive system
    • 2. Pharynx
      • Receives the food from your mouth. Branching off the pharynx is the oesophagus, which carries food to the stomach. The act of swallowing takes place in the pharynx partly as a reflex and partly under voluntary control.
      • The tongue  and soft palate push food into the pharynx, which closes off the trachea. The food then enters the oesophagus.
    • 4. Stomach
      • Temp storage of food eaten (2-4 hours). Stomach churns the food into smalller piece.
      • Cells in the lining of the stomach produce 'gastric juice'. This is needed so the body can obtain nutrition form food and to protect against bacteria that may be in food.
      • The stomach acid kills many of bacteria that may be food. Acid created the right conditions to allow Pepsin to begin chemical break down of the protein in your food into peptides
        • Important so the body can use the protein in your food to replace the protein it has used for body functions
      • The Intrinsic factor is needed so the Vitamin B12 in your food can be absorbed by the body. At this point the food is semi-liquid and is called 'chyme'.
    • 5. Small intestine
      • 1. The Duodenum
        • First part of small bowel. Main site of absorption for minerals and Vitamin A and D.
        • Gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum. The bile emulsifies the fat in the food into microscopic droplets so that it can be digested and absorbed more easily.
        • The pancreas releases the pancreatic juices into the duodenum and this contains a mixture of enzymes to help further breakdown the fat, protein and carbs in the food into smaller pieces
      • 2. The Jejunum
        • Where the final juices to help digestion are secreted by the cells in the jejunal lining. Part of the bowel where majority of nutrients are absorbed into the body.
          • This includes the absorption of the substances made from the breakdown of the carbs, fat and protein from the food.
      • 3. The Ileum
        • Where any remaining nutrients from the breakdown of protein and some water soluble vitamins are absorbed
        • Most bile salts are absorbed to be re-cycled by the body. Last part of ileum is the terminal ileum. This is where Vitamin B12 is absorbed.
    • 6. Large intestine- made up of 3 sections;
      • 1. The Caecum
        • Is what your appendix is attached to.
      • 2. The colon
        • Removes water, salt, some nutrients forming stool.
        • Muscles line the colon's walls, squeezing its contents along. Billions of bacteria coat the colon and its contents
      • 3. The rectum
        • Chamber begins at the end of the large intestine and ends at the anus. Ordinarily, rectum is empty because stool is stored higher in the descending colon. When full, stool passes into rectum causing urge to move bowels (defecate)
    • 3. Oesophagus
      • Allows  the food you swallow to get to your stomach
      • When you swallow, the muscles along the length of it tighten and relax in a wave downwards and the food is moved to the stomach
      • This has 2 sphincters. A sphincter is a narrowing caused by contracted muscles. These muscles remain contracted until the body sends a message for the muscles to relax. When the muscles of the sphincter relax things can then pass
        • One sphincter is at top of the oesophagus and the other is where it meets the stomach. This one controls the movement of food into the stomach and prevents stomach acid from going into the oesophagus.
    • 7. Anus
      • Opening at the far end of the digestive tract through which stool leaves the body. A muscular ring (anal sphincter) keeps the anus closed until the person has a bowel movement.
    • 1. Mouth
      • Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested. Saliva mixes with food to begin process of breaking it down to a form that the body can absorb and use.


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