Digestion and absorption

  • Created by: Georgimx
  • Created on: 14-05-18 19:59
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  • Digestion and absorption
    • Carbohydrates
      • Starch broken by amylase into maltose, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds
      • Amylase produced by salivary glands into the mouth and pancreas into the small intestine
      • Maltose by maltose into glucose, sucrose by sucrose into glucose and fructose, lactose by lactase into glucose and galactose
      • Membrane bound disaccharides are enzymes that attach to epithelial cells lining the ileum,
      • Monosaccharides absorbed: glucose and galactose with. Active transport with sodium ions via co transporter proteins, fructose by facilitated diffusion with another transporter protein
    • Lipids
      • Lipids broken down by lipase into mono glycerine should and fatty acids by the hydrolysis of Ester bonds
      • Lipases made in pancreas into small intestine
      • Bile salts are produced by the liver and emulsify lipids  to make them into little droplets// monoglycerides and fatty acids stick to them to form micelles which help the products of lipid digestion
      • Lipids absorbed: micelles break and reform, releases them and allows them to be absorbed across epithelial cell membrane (lipid soluble)
    • Proteins
      • Proteins are broken down into amino acids by hydrolysing the peptide bonds between
      • Endopeptidases hydrolyse the bonds between a protein (i.e. pepsin)
      • Exopeptidases hydrolyse peptide bonds at the end of the chain
      • Dipeptidases are exopeptidepases that work specifically on  dipeptides, separate the two amino acids, hydrolyse peptide bond, located on cell surface membranes of  epithelial cells in small intestine
      • Amino acids are absorbed by active transport of sodium ions out of epithelial cells into ileum, then diffuse back into cell via sodium dependent transporter proteins in epithelial cell membranes and carry amino acids with them


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