Differential Educational Achievement - Class

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  • Differntial Educational Achievement - Class
    • Barry Sugaman (1970) Middle class defer gratification. Lower class instant gratification 'want it now'
      • Used Interviews and questionnaires. Participants not always honest
    • JWB Douglas (1964) - Lower class less likely to do A Levels and go to University, be less healthy, live in poor areas and have large family
      • Used IQ tests which are unreliable.
    • Pierre Bourdieu (1974) Marxist. Cultural Capital. Middle class parents take kids to art galleries and help with homework.
      • Arm chair theorist - not empirical
    • Basil Bernstein (1961) Speech codes. Middle class have elaborated codes, Working class have restricted codes
      • Unrepresentative study, lacks reliability and validity
    • Ball, Bowe & Gerwitz (1994) Parental choice: Upper class - privileged skilled users; Middle class - semi skilled choosers and Working/lower class -disconnected choosers
      • Triangulation of Methods - Interviews, Survey and content analysis


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