Managing Seismic Hazards

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  • Created by: mayono1
  • Created on: 14-09-18 10:41
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  • Managing Seismic Hazards
    • Prediction
      • Prediction is difficult, plate tectonics can show where is at risk but it's hard to predict the actual time.
      • Attempts include: monitoring groundwater levels, release of radon gas and unusual animal behaviour.
    • Prevention
      • Prevention is relatively impossible. However, schemes are being studied to keep plates sliding past each other rather than sticking and releasing.
    • Protection
      • FEMA programme in the USA suggests: promoting understanding,better identifying risk, improve earthquake-resistant design and encourage planning practices
    • Hazard-resistant structures
      • Buildings can be designed to be aseismic. There are 3 ways in which this can be achieved:
        • Large concrete weight on top of the building that will move in the opposite direction to the force
        • Large rubber shock absorbers in the foundations
        • Cross-bracing to the structure to it hold it together better when it shakes
      • Older buildings can be retrofitted to make them more earthquake-proof
    • Education
      • Instructions are issued by authorities about preparation. Children have earthquake drills in school.
    • Fire prevention
      • 'Smart meters' can cut off the gas when an earthquake occurs.
    • Emergency services
      • Heavy lifting gear needs to be available and first aid training should be given to people.
    • Land-use planning
      • Certain types of buildings should be in low-risk areas such as hospitals and schools. It's also important to have sufficient open space.
    • Insurance
      • In richer areas this is easier, but for some it's too expensive.
    • Aid
      • Most aid to poorer countries has been to help in the first few days. Long-term aid is more problematical.
    • Tsunami protection
      • Tsunamis can't be predicted. Certain automated systems can give warnings.

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