Different types of ecologism

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    • Deep green ecologism
      • Represents a much more radical approach to the environment.
      • Draws no distinctions between various types of life on Earth.
        • We should protect the planet out of love and reverence for all the life it provides for.
        • Provides an idealistic justification for environmentalism, rather than much more  pragmatic attitude of shallow ecology motivated by fear.
      • Arne Naess coined the  term d eep ecology to contrast it with shallow  ecology, which is  utilitarian and  anthropocentric
      • Rachel Carson developed the principle we must limit our global human footprint.
      • EF Schumacher questioned to what extent materialism + economic growth were inevitable and desirable.
      • James Lovelock popularised deep ecology in his gaia thesis.
        • He argued that Earth is a living being (Gaia) and therefore  human beings have a duty to protect what sustains them.
      • They believe a total rethink of our relationship with each other and with the planet is needed.
        • Humans should consume only that which they need to satisfy their essential needs.
        • We must accept limitations on and restrictions of our lifestyles to rebalance the biosphere in favour of diversity.
        • Governments shouldn't  prioritise economic growth.
          • UK Green Party is committed to  allowing 'zero or negative goowth'.
      • Capitalism is based on   greed and exploitation, so can't provide a way forward.
    • Shallow green ecologism
      • Represents the reformist/mainstream approach to climate change.
      • Its philosophical basis is in the work of Aldo Leopold
        • Its contemporary exponents include Anthony Weston
      • They recognise that the actions of humans are influencing  climate change.
      • It's important that the global community acts to reduce emissions before it's too late.
      • They seek to do this within existing free  market economic structures.
      • Governments can provide incentives to make green choices.
        • Since 2010 public hire bikes have been introduced  to cut down on car use.
        • A number of cities have introduced congestion charges to discourage traffic in city centres.
        • There's a number of government incentives to install solar panels.
        • In the UK electric cars under value of £40k are exempt from road tax.
        • Since 2015 all UK supermarkets have charged at least 5p for plastic bags.
        • EU requires all members to adopt energy consumption labelling for most  domestic appliances.
      • Green capitalism provides consumer incentives to make environmentally friendly consumer decisions.
        • As a result of high performance and cheapness to run, electric cars are increasingly fashionable.
        • As domestic consumers and businesses seek to heat and light their homes more cost-effectively, this creates the incentive for architects to design buildings that are attractive and low cost to run.


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