Differences in Educational Attainment

  • Created by: FCarter
  • Created on: 29-05-19 14:34
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  • Differences in Educational Attainment
    • Class
      • Marxist
        • Neo-Marxist, Raymond Boudon - Positional theory
          • "Courses of action" have different costs and benefits depending on the individual's social position
        • Neo-Marxist, Pierre Bourdieu - Cultural capital theory
          • Level of cultural capital accumulated = reflection of their habitus
            • Class based "dispositions and tendencies" they learn and internalise through socialisation
      • Functionalist
        • J.W.B. Douglas - Parental Interest
          • Middle-class children received more attention and encouragement from their parents during their early years
        • Barry Sugarman - Attitudes and Outlooks
          • Middle-class subculture = Optimistic, future-time orientated, deferred gratification, individualism
          • Working-class subculture = Fatalistic, present-time orientated, immediate gratification, collectivism
        • Herbert H. Hyman - Value Systems
          • Members of the middle class believe there is more opportunity for personal advancement
            • This is the basis for the higher value placed on education and high occupational status
        • Basil Bernstein - Speech patterns
          • Most middle-class children have been socialised in both the restricted and elaborated codes and are fluent in each, whereas working-class children are only familiar with the restricted code
          • Carl Bereiter = New-Right theorist, working-class language is sub-standard
      • Social Action
        • Colin Lacey - Hightown Grammar
          • Study suggests that pupil subcultures develop within the school
            • They are a response to the way pupils are perceived by teachers, other pupils, and class organisation
        • Stephen J Ball - Beachside Comprehensive
          • Found that factors other than academic criteria were influential in determining bands.
            • Teachers had stereotypical views of the different bands and the behaviour of children diverged
        • Nell Keddie - The myth of Cultural Deprivation
          • Teachers classify students in terms of an 'ideal pupil'; the middle class pupil is closest to this ideal
    • Ethnicity
      • Marxist
        • Castles & Kosak - Reserve army of labour theory
          • 1. Ethnic minority pupils are deliberately under-educated
          • 2. Bourgeoisie use them to social control the wage demands of the white labour force
          • 3. Racist ideologies distract from inequalities
        • Neo-Marxist, Pierre Bourdieu - Cultural capital theory
          • The culture of schools is defined by the ruling class and is aimed at reproducing social-class and racial inequalities
      • Functionalist
        • Language barrier theory
          • May cause problems in doing schoolwork and communicating with teachers
      • New-Right/Neo-liberal
        • Family disorder theories
          • West Indians are held to have a family life which fails to encourage children to do well in education
        • Murray & Sewell - Underclass Theory
          • Murray suggested that African-Caribbean boys are disruptive because single mothers are incapable of instilling discipline in their sons
          • Tony Sewell argues that the culture of masculinity provides a "comfort zone" for many African-Caribbean men
    • Gender
      • Feminist
        • Girls' previous lower levels of educational attainment
          • J.W.B. Douglas -Some families devote more resources to the education of some than daughters
          • Fiona Norman - Conditioning and sex stereotyping starts before school, with different kinds of play, toys, and books
          • Dale Spender - Education is controlled by men who define their knowledge and experience as important
          • Glenys Lobban - Educational reading schemes reinforce gender stereotyping
        • Girls' higher levels of educational attainment
          • Feminisation of the workplace
          • Genderquake
          • Individualisation
          • Motivation to succeed
          • Feminisation of education
        • Boys' lower levels of educational attainment
          • Crisis of masculinity/change in the labour market
          • Delinquentanti-school subcultures
          • Schools fail to cater for boys

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