Diet (unit 4)

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  • Diet (unit 4)
    • A balanced diet involves having the energy output balancing with the energy input
    • Carbohydrates
      • involved in energy production
      • simple sugars: provide quick energy sources including glucose and fructose
      • Complex starches: have many sugar units and are much slower in releasing energy
      • stored in muscles and the liver as glycogen but need to be replenished
      • when exercise takes place glycogen is broken down into glucose
      • Carb-loading (glycogen loading) deplete stores fro 3 days then high amount for 3 days
        • recommend 60% of an athletes diet is made up of carbs
      • complex - cereal, pasta, bread , fruit
      • Simple- sugar, jam, confectionery, fruit juices
    • Fats
      • major source of energy for athletes performing low intensity endurance
      • Triglycerides - stored in the form of body fat
      • Fatty Acids- used as a fuel for energy production; either unsaturated or saturated
      • consumption should be carefully monitored and can cause obesity
      • - protects our vital organs , helps cell production, controls heat loss
    • Proteins
      • the building blocks for body tissue
      • essential for repairing muscle and produces hemoglobin
      • used as a back-up source of energy
      • should account for 15% of  total calorie intake
      • if had in excess, it can have health risks
      • meat, fish, poultry
      • the amount broken down depends on the amount of exercise you do
    • Vitamins
      • - energy production, prevention of disease, functioning metabolism
      • the body can only produce vitamin D
      • an overdose of a vitamin can cause damage to the liver and hair loss
      • Chemical compounds
    • Minerals
      • Macro-minerals = needed in large amounts (calcium, potassium)
      • Trace elements= needed in very small amounts (iron, zinc)
      • Iron = hemoglobin (meat and dairy)
      • Calcium = bones and teeth= (dairy and green Veg
      • Fibre= healthy bowel functions
        • absorbs alot of water
        • Fruit , veg, whole meal bread


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