Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia

  • Created by: beckie
  • Created on: 26-03-19 11:33
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  • Diagnosis and Classification
    • DSM
      • one positive symptom must be present
    • ICD
      • two or more negative symptoms must be present
    • key issues
      • reliability
        • is the diagnosis of Sz. consistent?
        • poor inter-rater reliability cheniaux et al (2009) had 2 psychiatrists independently diagnose 100 patients using either the ICD or the DSM. inter-rater reliability was poor 26 diagnosed using the DSM and 44 diagnosed using the ICD- not consistent.
      • validity
        • do they measure what they intend to measure?
        • criterion validity- do different assessment critters drive at the same diagnosis? cheniaux's study demonstrates that Sz. is more likely to be diagnosed using the ICD. suggests that Sz. is over diagnosed in the ICD/ under diagnosed in the DSM = poor validity
      • symptom overlap
        • share same symptoms? questioning validity
      • co-mordibity
        • two illnesses at the same time? confuse treatment/diagnosis
        • Buckley et al (2009) concluded that half the pps with Sz have also been diagnosed with depression or substance abuse. This may be a single condition - limitation as it is confusing
    • gender bias- Longenecker et al (2010) found women are less likely to be diagnosed that men. Cotton et al (2009) found that women function better with Sz symptoms than men- explains why they are less likely to be diagnosed. practical implications - men and women with same symptoms may be misdiagnosed and therefore receive different treatments
    • cultural bias - African-american and English people of African origin are more likely to be diagnosed with Sz in the UK. may be due to behaviour classes and social norms-  positive symptoms of Sz are 'normal' in african cultures. non-western culture report voices to be for friendly and kind whereas western cultures report aggressive and menacing voices.


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