Devices and techniques

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  • Devices and Techniques
    • Harmonic
      • Appoggiatura
        • A clashing note that is not prepared
          • Usually resolved by a step downwards
      • 7th Chords
      • Anticipation
        • A note which anticipates the main note usually at a cadence
          • Usually clashes briefly with the chordal sound
      • Tierce de Picardie
        • The third of chord I in the minor key is raised to the major
      • Pedal
        • Tonic
          • In the tonic note
        • A held or repeated note
        • Dominant
          • More common than the tonic
          • In the dominant note
        • Inner or internal
          • A pedal note in the inner or internal instrument
        • Inverted pedal
          • In the top instrument
      • Drone
        • From bagpipes
        • Octaves or fifths
      • Suspension
        • A dissonant or clashing note that is prepared on the previous beat
      • Secondary dominant chord
        • Chromatic chord which doesn't belong to the key
          • Sounds like the dominant of a new key
        • Not a real modulation
      • Cadences
        • Perfect
          • V-I
        • Imperfect
        • Plagal
          • IV-I
          • Sounds like "amen"
        • Interrupted
          • VI-I
      • Modulation
        • Changing the key
      • Inverted pedal
        • In the top instrument
      • Auxiliary or passing notes
        • Off beat note a second above or below the main note
        • Returns to the main note
    • Melodic
      • Auxiliary notes
      • Anticipation
      • Balanced Phrasing
        • "Periodic phrasing"
        • Phrases of equal length
        • Often four bars
      • Inversion
        • The phrase is put upside down
          • E.g. a minor third down from the main note becomes a minor third up from the main note
      • Retrograde
        • The music is written backwards
        • A-D-F-E becomes E-F-D-A
      • Sequence
        • A musical idea is repeated immediately but at a different pitch
        • Rising or falling
      • Ornaments or decorations
        • Appoggiatura
        • Acciaccatura
          • Rapid
          • A step above or below the main note
          • Written as a small note with a line through the stem
        • Mordent
          • The main note rapidly followed by the note above and the note below
          • Very quick
        • Trill
          • A pair of notes rapidly played one after the other
    • Rhythmic
      • Ostinato
        • A musical idea repeated many times and repeated as the basis of a composition
      • Syncopation
        • A note from the next beat is moved to a position just before the beat
      • Swing
        • Written quavers are played as notes of unequal length
        • Jazz
      • Triplets
        • Three notes are played in the time of two
      • Hemiola
        • Triple time
        • The notes are arranged in two beat rhythms
        • Rhythm sounds like duple time
      • Walking bass
        • Continuous crotchets and quavers that often move scalically
      • Dotted notes
      • Scotch Snap
        • "Lombardic rhythm"
        • A short note on the beat followed by a long note off the beat
      • Augmentation
        • A musical idea is repeated with longer note values

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