Developments in Weaponry

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  • Created by: K4typ
  • Created on: 31-05-18 14:41
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  • Developments in Weaponary
    • Revolutionary 1792-1802
      • Warfare dominated by – the musket bayonet + artillery. Lighter Artillery
      • Hot Air Balloon Used for Military purposes   1794
        • Battle of Flerus 1794 french used hot air-balloon to observe Austrian movement
          • despite both sides having an equal number of men France was able to use Technology ( the hot air balloon) to overcome the Austrians at the Battle of Fleurus in 1794 
    • Napoleonic 1802-1815
      • Lighter Artillery
      • Congreve rockets 1806
        • 800 Used at Waterloo in 1815 had little effect on the outcome. 
    • Crimean War 1851-53
      • 1st significant change that impacted nature  was improvements to the rifle Percussion cap ignition  1820’s - Replaced flintlock musket – had mis fire rate of 20%. 
      • Battle of Balaclava 1854 Despite the British having the superior Enfield Rifle and able to hold off the Russians as shown by the thin red line. However despite this the British suffered a strategic defeat 
      • Russians had wooden ships whilst french had iron-clads
        • take over of sevastapol
    • American Civil War 1861-65
      • Major change development of  1855 rifled musket con mini Bullet – kill up to 1000 yards accurate to 600. 
      • 1863 musket readily available . – high casualty rates 90% wounds caused by bullets. Forces able to fire several rounds at attackers.
      • 19 million fired may 1864 North Virginia
      • however same tactics followed resulted in “hammering matches” à heavy casualties 97,000 Battle of Gettysburg 1863
      • Railways Increased deployment speed used to deliver backup
      • Railway used at Battle of 1st BuLL RUN 1861 to deliver reinforcements --> victory confederate
    • WW1 1914-18
      • Chemical Warefare – 1st used by Germans at 2nd battle of ypres 1915
      • But dependent on wind direction.  Blown back at British at Loos 1915.
      •  . Tanks – protected troops from machine guns, initially unreliable, moved at 2 miles per hour + not enough of them. 
        • 1st time – 49 used at Somme.
        • Cambrai 1917 350. Played role in breakthrough 1918.
    • WW2 1939-45
      • Developments à speed + advantage going from defender to attacker
      • Tanks more reliable + moved faster + effective  Successful in D advance W Eu
      • Tank battles –Krusk 1943 – 10,000 tanks 
      • Mobile artillery played effective role in battles – N Africa 3rd Battle El Alamein 1942
    • Wars of Unification
      • Superior French Rifled Napoleon cannon range of 3500 yards 1500 more than Austrians artillery  à victory in most battles despite Austrians having better rifles 
        • Could be loaded or fired from a lying or prone position –Effectve against Austrians 1866 
      • Austro Prussian development dreys needle gun. –  loaded and fired 4 o 5x more quickly than a muzzle loaded rifle. 

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