Development Psychology

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  • Developmental Psychology
    • Definitions
      • Maternal deprivation hypothesis: a term used by bowl by referring to the disruption of the attachment bond, caused by frequent of prolonged separation from the mother resulting in emotional and behavioural problems.
      • Disruption of attachment: any loss of or separation from the attachment figure either short of long term
      • Privation: is where an attachment has never been formed in the first place. no constant career has been provided to develop an attachment with
      • Social Development: the ability to make friend, popularity with own age and able to negotiate play games
      • Peer relations: the tendency to eek and enjoy the company of others and make relationships with them. A process where the child develops the knowledge and social skills
      • Aggression:  an act intended to cause harm to someone/something e.g tantrums, kicking, arguing, lying
      • Day care: not institutional care. its temporary care that is not provided by the parents during the day e.g. preschool
      • Institutional care: long term residential care provided by no relatives outside of the family setting e.g. orphaneges
    • Attachement
      • An enduring emotional bond/tie that develops over time between infant and primary caregiver. It is a strong reciprocal bond because two people are attachment to each other.
      • Research: Bowlbys theory of attachment
        • Bowlby believed we have evolved this mechanism to make an instinctive bond between caregiver and infant to increase the likelihood of survival of the infant - suggesting attachment has been 'selected in'.
          • Critical period. Mother/permanent mother substitute. Monotropy (one special bond). Adaptive and selected in. Social release (smiling,cooing). Internal working model
      • Supporting Research: Harlows study of Rhesus Monkeys
        • Two infant monkeys in cages. two wire cylinders, one provides food and one is towelling covered. If food was the cause of attachment you would except them stay with the one supplying food. however they cline to the towelling covered 'mother'
          • Simply supplying food isn't sufficient for the formation of attachment. However, lead to behavioural problems in the monkeys as an attachment wasnt formed as the towelling mother did not provide enough sufficient love for healthy psychologcial developement. Suports  bowlbys 'critical period'
      • Supporting Research: Hazen and Shaver internal working model
        • Found that people who were securely attachment as infant had happy lasting relationships. Those who were insecurely attached found relationships less easy. Supports internal working model as those who were securely attached were provided with the bases of successful future relationships.
      • Challenging Research: Tizard and Hodges
        • Found that children bought up in orphanages with multiple carers an did not form attachments before 2.5, did later form attachments with their permanent careers. Challenges the critical period as they were still able to form attachments after the critical period.
    • Robertson and Bowlby PDD model
      • Protest: the child cries a lot and appears very distressed
      • Despair: The child shows little interest in its surrounding and engages in self comforting activities
      • Detachment: The child pears less distressed but is actually detached from its surroundings
    • Disruptment to attachment
      • Research: Robertson and Robertson - The case of John
        • John, 27 months old. residential care for 9 days whilst motor was in hospital. They had a strong healthy attachment. PDD Model.
    • Learning theory explanation of attachment
      • This theory suggests all behaviours are acquired suing conditions. Either operant or classical conditioning.
      • Classical conditioning: food, the unconditioned stimulus naturally elicits feelings of warmth and happiness, the unconditioned response. the sight of the mother, neural stimulus, becomes associated with the food, until juts the sight of the mother elicits the feelings of warmth and happiness (conditions response)
      • operant conditioning: Food is the primary reinforcer. The secondary reinforcer is a behaviour associated with getting the primary reinforcer (crying). The mother responds to this behavevours by giving the bay the primary reinforcer (food). Therefore the bay is positively reinforced by knowing crying get foods. This theory suggests attachment arises through the process of positive reinforcement.
      • Supporting research: Oxana case study
        • Impossible to carry out lab experiments so feral children case studies are used. She was unable to form attachment with parents. Provided with food and shelter by dogs. Formed attachment with dogs and displays behaviour associated with keeping the dogs close in order to attend to her primary reinforcer (food)
      • Challenging research: Harlrows Monkeys
        • Monkeys spent more time with towelling covered cylinder rather than the one which supplied food. Challenges as the mother remains the main attachment figure even when they are not sufficiently providing the primary reinforcer (food). Suggesting learning theory is more complex.
    • Strange Situation Study
      • Research: Ainsworth and Bell.
        • Controlled observation. American children 9-18months. 8 stage procedure of mother leaving, stranger entering and mother returning.
          • Securly attached 86% (explore room, distressed, greater mother) Insecure avoiding 22% (didn't orient near mother, wasn't distress, little interest when she returned) Insecure resistant 12% (very distressed, rejected mothers return).
            • The majority of the children were securely attached. The attachment type relies on the way the mother reacts to them - caregiver sensitivity hypothesis.
    • Disruption in Cultural Variations
      • Research: Vanljizendeem and kroonenberg
        • Meta analysis, using secondary data of the strange situation study. Identify any cultural differences.
          • Majority of children were securely attached. UK had highest% of SA and lowest % of IR. China vide versa. Significant difference between western and non western cultures. China had equal % of secure and insecure
            • Western Cultures had more avoid ant insecure, non western had more resistant insecure
              • High population validity,widens our understanding of other cultures. High reliability, controlled experiment, high internal validity.
                • However, study used western norm of attachment. (E.g Japan). wrongly assuming based on our culture. Suggests everyone in a particular culture follows the same pattern,no variation, homogentiy.
    • Maternal Deprivation Research
      • Research: Bowlby 44 Juvenile thieves.
        • 88 children aged 5-16. 44 were referredto clinic for stealing. Bowlby diagnosed 16 of them as affection less psychopaths. shameless and conciouless. Intervwied children, family and peers
          • 86% of affection less psychopaths experienced maternal deprivation. Only 17% of the thieves who were not affection less psychopaths and only 4% of the non thieves.He concluded that maternal deprivation cold cause affecetionless psychopath and delinquency
    • Institutional Care research
      • Research: Hozard and Tidges
        • Longitudinal study. Effects of privation on social, emotional and cognitive development. 65 children emitted to institutional care before 4 months. No attachments
          • By the age of 4: 24 were adopted, 15 returned to biological parents, 26 remained in institution. control groups of 65 normal children. Questions an interviews with parents, peers and teachers.
            • Adoped group had better realtions with new family. restored group had negative relationships but stronger attachments. both groups had social difficulties, no best friend, seek attention and indiscriminately nice. issues weren't present in control group
    • Applications of day care research
      • Introduce child  to environment prior so its not strange. Maintain bonds with home. consistent care giver. parents encouraged to stay with child in hospital. invest more time during critical period. better quality day care. government garrottes preschool pace to every 3 year old. Increased paretla leave
    • The EPPE (the effective provision of preschool education)
      • 3000 children from 141 different preschools with different backgrounds. play groups, nursery ,pirate etc. Each child was assessed 3/4 and assed again when they went to primary school
        • 20 hours+ increased antisocial behaviour. 40hours+ significant increase in antisocial behaviour. Children with constantly changing careers showed increased aggressions. disadvantaged children were more likely to have social issues. quality of care is large factor. high external validity.  socially sensitive
    • The NICHD (the national institute of child health and development)
      • longitudinal study. 1,000+ children from 10 different locations. assed at regular intervals on their ability to get along with others and follow social rules. Socially sensitive, high external validity
        • At the age of 5, the more time spent in day care the more assertive, disobedient and aggressive. Effect as great when quality was poorer. children in full time day care were x3 more likely to have behavioural problems
    • Peer relations research
      • EPPE
        • found that attending pre school improved independence, cooperation and sociability. The better the day care the better the effects
      • NICHD
        • found increased arguing amongst children who had spent time in day care. suggesting detrimental as they are unable to cooperate efficiently
      • Shea 1981
        • assed social skills of 3/4 year olds in austral during a 10 week period when in nursery.either 5,3 or 2 days per week. all showed increased social skills, especially 5 days a week group

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