development of children's writing (spelling)

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  • development of children's writing (spelling)
    • writing involves representing spoken message. they have to determine links between speaking + writing
      • encoding message is learned by encoding speech
    • VYGOTSKY suggested  writing is learnt as 2nd order of representation (spoken is 1st). writing represents spoken.
      • 2nd order because written word doesn't represent object but the spoken form of the word which in turn represents the object
    • grapheme/ phoneme correspondence cause problems in English because of deep orthography
    • tend to leave vowels out in spelling.
    • difficulties in mastering some spelling features, like: -ar, -er, -or endigs. -ed (should the last letter be doubled or not [stopped, walked]), -ing endings.
    • children do better when spelling sounds like word
    • categories of spelling errors
      • 1. insertion of extra letters
      • 2.  omitting of letter
      • 3.  substitution of different letters
      • 4. transposition/ reversing of 2 letters
      • 5.  phonetic spelling
      • 6.  salient sounds only (twr instead of tower)


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