Development of personality

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  • Created by: 11pyoung
  • Created on: 05-04-16 12:14
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  • Development of personality
    • Defining personality and temperament
      • Personality
        • The thoughts, feelings and behaviours  that make an individual unique
      • Temperament
        • The genetic component of personality
      • Longitudinal study
        • A study carried out to show how behaviour changes over time
      • Thomas, Chess + Birch
        • They studied 133 children from infancy to early adulthood. The behaviour was observed and parents were interviewed
          • Parents asked about child's routine and their reaction to change
        • Found that the children fell into 3 types
          • Easy
          • Difficult
          • Slow to warm up
        • These ways of responding to the environment stayed with the children as they developed.
          • Temperament is innate
        • Evalution
          • Longitudinal
            • Study children as they grow, results can be more reliable
            • participants could drop out partway through and affect the results
          • The children were from middle-class families in New York
            • Can't be generalised to  other social classes
          • Parents may have been biased in their answers as they  wanted to show their child in the best way
    • Eysenck's type theory of personality
      • Type theory
        • Personality types are thought to be inherited. They can be described using related traits
      • Extroversion
        • A personality  type that describes  people who look to the outside world for entertainment
      • Introversion
        • A personality type that describes  people who are content with their own company
      • Neuroticism
        • A personality type that describes people who are highly emotional and show a quick, intense reaction to fear
      • Eysenck
        • Each soldier completed a questionnaire. the results were analysed  using a technique known as factor analysis
        • Two dimensions identified
          • Extroversion-Introversion
          • Neuroticism-Stability
        • Everyone can be placed along these two dimensions of personality
          • Most people lie in the middle of the scale
        • Evaluation
          • Limited sample size
          • Limited number of personality types described
          • Questionnaires used
            • People could answered based on how they were feeling at the time
          • He believed personality  is genetic
            • Doesn't consider the idea that personality can change as a result of experience
      • Psychoticism
        • A third dimension identified Eysenck.
          • People who score high on this  dimension are hostile, aggressive, insensitive and cruel
      • Personality scales
        • Ways of measuring personality using yes/no questions
    • APD
      • Biological causes
        • Amygdala
          • Part of the Brain concerned with emotions
        • Cerebral cortex (Grey matter)
          • The outer layer of the brain
        • Prefrontal cortex
          • The very front of the brain. Involved in social and moral behaviour, controls aggression
        • Raine
          • MRI scans of 21 people's brains who had APD and 34 healthy volunteers
          • The APD group had  an 11% reduction of grey matter compared with the control group
          • APD is caused by  reduction in the brain's Grey matter
          • Evaluation
            • Supports the biological explanation of APD
            • Raine had only studied males so their findings may not relate to women with APD
            • His participants were all volunteers so it may not be representative of all people with APD
          • Practical implications
            • Difficult to know how to prevent APD as researchers don't know the cause
            • If APD has a biological cause then it can't be prevented
            • If APD has a situational cause then reducing childhood problems should lower the risk of APD
      • Situational causes
        • Socioeconomic factors
          • Social and financial issues that can affect an individual
        • Farrington
          • Longitudinal study of 411 males. They all lived in a deprived area of London. They were first studied at age 8 and were followed up to the age of 50. Their parents and teachers were also interviewed. Criminal records were searched to see if any family members had been convicted
          • 41% of the males were convicted of at least one offence between the ages of 10 and 50
          • Situational factors lead to the development of antisocial behaviour
          • Evaluation
            • Experiment was not controlled
            • People gave socially desirable answers when being interviewed
          • Practical implications
            • Difficult to know how to prevent APD as researchers don't know the cause
            • If APD has a biological cause then it can't be prevented
            • If APD has a situational cause then reducing childhood problems should lower the risk of APD

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