health and social care

  • Created by: Zaina305
  • Created on: 29-03-17 13:03
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  • Development in Infancy
    • Physical
      • Growth
        • Increase in height
          • From around 50cm at birth to around 75cm in one year
        • Milk teeth
          • Milk teeth appear from the age of 6 months, and fall out during childhood
        • Increase in weight
          • From around 3kg to around 8kg in one year
      • Motor skills
        • Gross motor skills
          • 6 months
            • Rolls over, can sit if supported
          • 9 months
            • Crawls, sits without help, pulls up to a standing position, stands while holding on to furniture
          • 1 year
            • Wtands without help, walks if helped
          • 15 months
            • Walks without help, crawls upstairs
          • 18 months
            • Climbs on to chairs, walks upstairs
          • 2 years
            • Runs, kicks a ball
          • 3 years
            • Can dress and undress, rides a tricycle, stands on one foot
        • Fine motor skills
          • 6 months
            • Reaches out for objects, passes objects from one hand to the other, puts object to mouth
          • 9 months
            • Pokes objects with finger, picks things up using finger and thumb
          • 1 year
            • Drops objects on purpose, pints to things
          • 15 months
            • Picks up small objects with pincer grip
          • 18 months
            • scribbles, turns pages of books
          • 2 years
            • Turns door knobs, eats with a spoon
          • 3 years
            • Threads small beads, uses a pencil gripped between thmb and first two fingers
    • Intellectual
      • Language skills
        • Being able to name objects
        • Speaking short sentences
        • Asking questions
        • Understanding what other people say
        • Following simple commands
      • Thinking skills
        • Colour concepts- being able to recognise colours
        • Number concepts- being able to count
        • Shape concepts- being able to recognise simple shapes
    • Emotional
      • Infants show positive and negative distress from birth
        • Crying- when distressed
          • E.g. in pain or tired
        • Screaming- when frustrated
          • E.g. when hungry
        • 6 months- infants smile at faces
          • Later, they show pleasure
            • E.g. when tickled
            • Face-to-face contact with parent
        • From around 2 years, infants often have tantrums
          • This shows that an infant is developing the expression of emotions but is not yet able to control this
          • A parent who gets angry with an infant having a tantrum usually make things worse
            • The best way to help an infant get out of a tantrum is to keep calm
              • You can either distract the infant or move some distance away
      • Self- concept
        • It develops during infancy
          • 18 months, most infants can recognise pictures of themselves
      • Attatchment
        • 7 months- 1 years old= attachment happens usually to someone they see very often (parents)
          • They don't like being separated, and if they are separated they may be distressed, cry and unable to be consoled by others
            • They try to stay as close as possible to the attatched person. they can be clingy
          • They can show a fear of strangers
            • At around 3 years old, infants can put up with short separations from people they are attached to. this means they can go to nursery or creche.
        • They're more likely to explore, and make new friends. when they have a good atachment
          • When a parent neglects the child, the infant will show they dont have a strong attachment, and they wont have bonded well
    • Social
      • During the first few weeks of life, infants seem to prefer to look at faces, rather than at other things
        • This is the beginning of social development
      • At around 6 weeks, infants often smile at faces
      • When attatched, the infant shows a fear of separation.
        • During this stage, infants usually play by themselves, as long as a familiar person is not far away
        • Towards the end of this stage, infants begin to show some interest in other children
  • Increase in weight
    • From around 3kg to around 8kg in one year

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