Developing Drugs

  • Created by: India.02
  • Created on: 09-05-19 12:45
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  • Developing Drugs
    • 1. Preclinical Testing
      • Drugs tested on human cells and tissues in the lab
      • You can't use human cells and tissues to test drugs that affect whole or multiple body systems
        • Testing a drug for blood pressure must be done on a whole animal because it has an intact circulatory system
    • 2. Preclinical Testing
      • Test the drug on live animals
      • This is to test efficacy - whether the drug works and is effective - toxicity - how harmful it is - the best dosage - concentration that should be given and how often
      • Law in the U.K. states that any new drug must be tested on two different live mammals - some believe that it's cruel to test on animals - others say that it is the safest way to test the danger of the drug before it is given to humans
    • 3. Clinical Trial
      • Drug tested on healthy volunteers to make sure that it doesn't have any harmful side effects when the body works normally
        • At first, a very low dosage is given - gradually increased to avoid reactions to the drug
      • If results from healthy volunteers are good, the drugs can then be tested on people with the illness - the optimum dose is found - does of the drug when it is most effective and has few side effects
        • Patients put into 2 random groups - one given drug and the other a placebo - like the drug but doesn't do anything - doctor can see the actual difference the drug makes
          • Also allows for placebo effect - patient expects the treatment to work and feels better even though the treatment isn't doing anything
      • Trials are blind - the patients don't know whether they are getting the drug or the placebo - often double-blind because the doctor doesn't know what form they are giving to the patient
        • No one knows until the results are gathered
        • So doctors monitoring the patients and analysing the results aren't sub-consciously influenced by their knowledge
      • Results of drug testing and trials aren't published until they've undergone a peer review - prevents false claims
        • Peer review - when other scientists check that the work is valid and has been carried out rigorously


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