Detente

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  • Detente 1963
    • Lessening of tension.
    • Hotline 1963- a direct tele-printer between The Kremlin and The White House.
    • The Test Ban Treaty 1963- stopping nuclear tests above ground.
    • 1964, Khrushchev was replaced by Brezhnev who was less interested in Detente. He wanted to focus on military power and investing money in the arms race.
    • 1965, US were in a communist war over Vietnam.
    • AUgust 1968- soviet invasion on Czechoslovakia.
      • Brezhnev sent troops from the Warsaw Pact into czechoslovakia because the czech government was beginning to show independence from the soviet union e.g. allowing free speech.
      • 200,000 troops entered Czech.
    • Out of Space Treaty 1967- stopped arms race from spreading to outer space because nuclear weapons could be placed in space.
    • Nuclear non-proliferation Treaty signed 1968- promised not to give nuclear technology to other countries.
    • Nixon 1968
      • He wanted to improve foreign relations.
      • May 1972- SALT 1 is signed
        • SALT 1 was the first treaty that limited the number of nuclear weapons each superpower had.
        • It promised a 5 year delay on the building of new missiles.
          • This was popular with the public who saw nuclear weapons as costing a fortune.
        • Was it a success?
          • Yes
            • The first time the countries had agreed on arms limitation.
            • Showed the Detente had created an environment in which two sides could co-operate.
              • Untitled
          • No
            • Only dealt with strategic weapons- did not cover war head missiles or battlefield weapons.
            • USA still continued to produce multiple war heads through 1970's- 3 a day.
            • Weapon number were not reduced.
    • August 1973-   American troops leave south Vietnam.
    • The Apollo-Soyuz mission 1975.
      • Joint space mission in which an American Apollo spacecraft and a Russian Soyuz spacecraft docked high above the earth. This marked the beginning of super power co-ordination in space.
    • The Helsinki Agreements 1975
      • This conference had representatives from 35 countries. They discussed an agreement which involved 3 main issues:
        • Security
          • All country boundaries were excepted
          • No country would interfere in the internal affairs with another country.
          • Countries would inform each other about any big military maneuvers.
        • Co-operation
          • economic co-operation through trade.
          • scientific co-operation through sharing information and research.
          • educational co-operation
        • Human Rights
          • freedom of speech, movement, religion and information.
    • The Kabul revolution 1978
      • Brezhnev saw the communist revolution in afghanistan as an opportunity to extend his power in the oil-rich country.
        • The new government in Kabul wanted to build socialism, but many muslim leaders across the country hated socialism.
          • Spring 1979 a civil war broke out so President Taraki put Amin as prime minister as he believed Amin was popular and get support from the army.
            • Taraki was not popular with the community and 1979, Taraki was assassinated and Amin became president of the country.
    • The Soviet invasion 1979
      • Following Amin's seizure to power, Brezhnev ordered a soviet invasion in Afghanistan.
      • soviet troops invaded on christmas day 1979.
        • 1.5 million people died in the war over the next 10 years.
        • 15000 soviet soldiers were killed by 1989.
      • Amin was killded and replaced by Karmal.
      • America's response to the soviet invasion;
        • President Carter refused to accept any attempt by the USSR to get more influence in the middle east.
        • USA, China and Israel supplied weapons and training to Afghanistan.
        • USA stopped trading with USSR and so did other western countries.
        • USA broke off diplomatic relations with USSR.
        • USA refused to sign SALT II treaty which could have reduced the number of nuclear missiles to 2250 warheads per superpower.
        • USA boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics with 60 other countries.
        • USSR and other communist countries boycotted the LA Olympics in 1984 in retaliation.

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