Détente

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  • Created by: Aimee
  • Created on: 14-05-13 13:23
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  • Détente
    • Causes
      • Fear of war
        • Cuban Missile crisis 1962- highlighted danger of nuclear war threat
        • Sophisiticated weapons/delivery systems
        • 1969- USSR and USA matched capability for MAD- strategic parity
      • USSR Needs
        • Peaceful.C continued under Brezhnev
        • Security interests more important than ideological
        • USA perceived weaker during Vietnam
        • USSR= more parity in nuclear weapons= negotiate deals from position of strength
        • wanted to stabilise E.Europe + acceptance of sov sphere of Influence
        • Sino-Soviet split- didn't want USA involved if conflict w/China
        • Domestic pressures: economics, divert resources for living standards
        • access to western technology +grain
      • USA Needs
        • Vietnam=re-evaluation of power and f.policy
        • Domestic = high inflation+budget deficit
        • w.europe= greater independence- De Gaulle withdrew Fr from NATO ('66)
        • Right wing politics= weaker due to Vietnam= detente could be pursued
        • influence of industrial-military complex would be reduced
        • Social reforms needed but lack of resources
        • Social unrest= 1968 riots
          • Social reforms needed but lack of resources
        • detente= resources invested in commerce and financial services(W.E=rival)
      • European Needs
        • Political instability - Prague Spring, Paris Riots
        • Ostpolitik= new links with E.Germany.
          • Objectives: -Recognise E.germany and negotiate w/GDR, settle border with Poland
            • Basic Treaty of 1972- existence of E. Germany accepted, trade links agreed
            • Basic Treaty of 1977: normalise/settle relations between FDR  and GDR
            • 1973: FRG and GDR members of UN
            • Kissinger: did not want to be marginalised from influence in Europe
              • USA Needs
                • Vietnam=re-evaluation of power and f.policy
                • Domestic = high inflation+budget deficit
                • w.europe= greater independence- De Gaulle withdrew Fr from NATO ('66)
                • Right wing politics= weaker due to Vietnam= detente could be pursued
                • influence of industrial-military complex would be reduced
                • Social unrest= 1968 riots
                  • detente= resources invested in commerce and financial services(W.E=rival)
          • More to be gained ec+pol fro negotiation
      • Successes  of Détente
        • SALT I (1972): Nixon's visit to China accelerated talks =pressure for USSR to sign
        • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) + Non-Proliferation Treaty(68)= agreements to limit nuclear arms
          • armaments had increased, many agreements ignored
        • ABM Treaty 1972 - 2 systems each
        • Interim Treaty- limits on ICBM's and SLBMs
        • Basic Principles Agreement = coonduct of N. Warfare 'utmost to avoid mil confrontations and exercise restraint
        • SALT= high point, Nuclear parity accepted, equal status - both gained
        • SALT II: Signed by Carter and Brezhnev
        • Helsinki Accords 1975
          • 33 states from NATO + Warsaw Pact
          • 1. borders of European countries inviolable= Soviet Bloc accepted
          • Trade and technology exchanges = links across iron curtain
          • Human Rights (initial reluctance but accepted) - undermine hold of repressive regimes?
      • Failures of Détente
        • Both sides had different weapon systems= which included?
        • Different technologies not included- new powerful techs developing
        • SALT II- rejected by Senate in 1980 not ratified concession to USSR, technical
          • SALT II: Signed by Carter and Brezhnev
        • Invasion of Afghanistan = expansionism, arms and defence spending increased under Carter and Reagan, ^hostility
        • Little actually achieved- HR, ussr violating Helsinki
        • conflict in Developing world- expansionism= renewed distrust and suspicion
          • Moz+Eth- USSR supporting civil wars- carter sent weapons to Nicuaragua+El Salvador
        • US Domestics: Detente weak+giving up , return to containment and determinst approch or Reagan
          • Recovered from Viet humiliation
          • Had allowed sovs to make gains and catch up= danger to security
        • Brezhnev ill - decision making slow , divisions in USSR, wanted to increase weapons for support in dev world
        • armaments had increased, many agreements ignored

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