Détente in the 1970s

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  • Détente in the 1970s
    • SALT 1 - Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (1972)
      • Superpowers agreed to limit the amount of nuclear weapons they had
      • No further production of strategic ballistic weapons
      • No increase in number of intercontinental ballistic weapons (ICBMs) (though new ones could be added to replace old ones
      • No new nuclear missile launchers. New submarines to that could launch nuclear weapons (SLBMs) only allowed as replacements for existing missile launchers
      • The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty limited both sides to two ABM deployment areas
    • How effective was SALT 1
      • Slowed down arms race
      • Led to further negotiations that culminated in the SALT 2 Treaty
      • Ensured that neither side had a decisive advantage
      • Did not cover intermediate nuclear weapons, both sides continued to deploy in Europe during the late 1970's
    • 1975 Helsinki Agreement
      • Signed by all European countries except Albania and Andorra, as well as the US, the USSR and Canada in Helsinki, Finland
      • Agreement on borders: East and West Germany accepted each other officially
      • All disputes to be settled peacefully through the UN if necessary
      • No country to interfere in the internal affairs of another country
      • Trade cooperation: the US agreed to buy oil from the USSR and the USSR agreed to buy wheat from the US
      • Sharing of scientific knowledge (e.g. in medicine) and education cooperation (e,g, student exchanges)
      • Countries to respect human rights, including freedom of speech, religion, movement and information
    • The importance of Helsinki
      • Helped the US and USSR for a table relationship
      • Represented the high point of détente
      • Coincided with more US-Soviet cooperation like the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1975) - a joint space mission - and trade agreements
    • Limits to Helsinki
      • USSR continued to focus on Eastern bloc countries and to apply the Brezhnev Doctrine, treated dissidents harshly; scientist Alexander Sakharov was arrested, hospitalised and force-fed
      • USA continued to prioritise its interests in countries it could influence, like Chile and El Salvador

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