Designing Computer-based information system

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  • Designing Computer-based information systems
    • Processing systems - (processing, response time, user interface)
      • Batch
        • processes batches of data at regular intervals. Usually large of identical type. e.g. bank statements. User interface: code based, response time is delayed (days) and processes when the system is not busy and off-line.
      • Interactive
        • handles transitions one at a time and each transation must be fully processed th response given to the user and associated files updated before next transatction is procesed. Processing: each transaction completed before next. Response time: dependent on action from user. User interface: GUI
      • Real-time
        • processes data at the time the data is input. the data must be handled within a specified maximum time limit. Processing: data processed as soon as it is received by processor. Response time: very quick (<4secs). User interface: based on user's requirements.
    • Types of operating system
      • single user
        • Can support more than one user account but only one user can have access to the system at one time.
      • Multi user
        • Lets more than one user access the system at the same time. Usually provided  by  a network
      • Multi tasking
        • Processor carrying out more than one task at a time e.g. word processor & internet. To do this; needs multiple processors
      • Interactive
        • Runs with direct user interaction while a program is running
      • Real-time
        • developed for realtime applications (embedded) e.g. car management system
      • Batch processing
        • given a task to run without user intervention (nighttime or weekend) or just before end of month for payroll etc.
      • Distributed processing
        • number of computers connected together and each computer completes part of the processing. When all completed, results are combined to meet the requirements of the user.
    • Designing and using a human-computer interface
      • colour
        • should follow corporate colours & colours in HCI should not clash
      • layout
        • consistent used on all screens of the HCI & follow layout of original documents
      • quantity of on-screen information
        • linked to amount of white space used. enable the user to effectively use the screen and complete their tasks. Not too much info either
      • size of font and style
        • clear and font size which is easy to read e.g. verdana & 12+
      • Complexity of language
        • kept as low as poss. Any error messages in simple language
      • Type of controls
        • ease of use, including buttons, forms and menus
    • Different methods of dialogue
      • Computer and person
        • prompt, nature of input, methods of input and feedback
      • Person and computer
      • Computer and computer
    • Methods of human-device communications,particularly HCI
      • Command-line interfaces
      • menus/sub-menus
      • Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)
      • Natural Language (including speech input-output)
      • Forms Dialogue
    • Designing an interface. Looking at a potential users:
      • perception
        • sights and sounds
      • attention
        • attention span; only limited, which is linked to amount of time they can look at a screen. To help: uncluttered layout in logical order.
      • Memory
        • parts of the interface will not be used regularly and memory cannot be relied on & designer needs to ensure that the actions required need to be held in the users short-term memory (logical order/uncluttered screen).
      • learning
        • how easy is it to learn? consistent but not distracting layouts
    • Model Human Processor (Card, Moran & Newell
    • Mental Mordel




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