Depression mind map

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  • Depression
    • clinical characteristics
      • must have 5 or more over 2 weeks
        • depressed mood
        • diminished interest or pleasure
        • weight loss/gain
        • insomnia or hypersomnia
        • psychomotor agitation or retardation
        • fatigue
        • feelings of worthlessness/inappropriate guilt
        • diminished ability to concentrate
        • recurrent thoughts of death
    • issues surrounding classification
      • reliability
        • inter-rater
          • beck (page 6)
        • test re-test
          • beck et al (page 7)
      • validity
        • comorbidity
          • barlow (page 7)
        • content validity
        • concurrent validity
          • beck (page 7)
      • biases
        • gender
          • bertakis et al (page 8)
        • culture
          • davidson and neale (page 8)
        • labelling and stigmatising
          • szasz
          • scheff
    • explanations
      • biological
        • genetic inheritance
          • family history
            • inheritance
              • shortened 5-HTT gene
            • people with no family history can get depresed
          • research
            • family studies
              • gershon (page 9)
            • adoption
              • wender et al (page 9)
              • biological parents 8x more likely
            • twin studies
              • mcguffin (page 10)
        • biolchemical explanations: neurotransmitters
          • seratonin
            • Mann (page 10)
            • McNeal (page 10)
          • noradrenaline
            • teuting, rosen, and hirschfield (page 11)
          • doopamine
            • deccreases with age
          • cortisol
            • suomi (page 11)
      • psychodynamic
        • linked to loss of loved one
          • actual loss
          • symbolic loss
        • unmet needs at oral stage of developmet
          • become over dependent on others
            • vulnerable to depression as they seek love or approval
          • leads to anger
            • anger turned inwards towards the self
              • reduces self esteem
            • getting angry at others would be unacceptable to the superego
              • anger turned inwards towards the self
                • reduces self esteem
        • low self esteem as result over over critical parenting
          • child feels their real self can never live up to the ideal self
        • research
          • Bifulco (page 14
          • Waller (page 14)
          • cannot be proved or falsified
      • cognitive
        • negative self schemas
          • acquired in childhood
            • result from traumatic events
              • death of a parent or sibling
              • parental rejection /criticism /over protection /neglect /abuse
              • bullying or exclusion from peer group
        • cognitive biases
          • arbitrary interference
          • selective abstraction
          • overgeneralisation
          • magnification / minimisation
          • personalisation
    • treatments
      • biological
        • antidepressants
          • SSRI's
            • Gitlin (page 18)
            • prozac
          • Tricyclics
            • montgomery et al (page 19)
          • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
            • jarrett et al (page 19)
            • diet restriction
        • Electoconvulsive therapy
          • current passed through the brain for about have a secind
            • causes 1 minute seizure
          • research
            • richards and lyness (page 20)
            • janicak (page 20)
            • sackheim (page 20)
        • deep brain stimulation
          • electrodes implanted in skull
            • deliver electrical pulses to brain
          • problems measuring effectiveness
      • Psychological
        • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
          • cognitive
            • identifying fault or irrational thinking
              • challenges them
          • behavioural
            • setting homework for client
              • helps them see their beliefs are wrong
          • keller (page 23)
          • client plays an active role
        • psychodynamic therapy
          • interpersonal therapy - sullivan
            • letting go if what has been lost
              • surviving the process of change
                • adapting to new circumstances and demands
                  • letting go if what has been lost
                    • surviving the process of change
                      • adapting to new circumstances and demands
              • first stage
                • intermediate
                  • termination
                    • how to cope with loss of relationship with therapist
                    • how techniques will be used in the future
                  • working through problems with therapist
                    • 4 major problem areas
                      • Role transitioning (giving up an old role and taking on a new one - new job/ retiring)
                      • Role dispute (demands and expectations of a significant other)
                      • Interpersonal deficits (social-communication skills, long standing difficulty establishing or maintaining a relationship)
                      • grief (loss of a loved one)
                • identification of clients major problem areas
              • research
                • Martin (page 25)
                • Musford (page 25)
                • Boston new haven study (page 26)
                • NIHM - Elkin (page 26)

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