Depression Explanations Psychology PSYB3

Biological, psychodynamic and cognitive explanations in brief with some A02 points

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  • Depression
    • Unipolar
      • withdrawal from social life, loss of appetite
      • poor concentration, thinking about suicide
    • Biological Explanation
      • GENETICS
        • McGuffin
          • MZ: 46%
          • DZ: 20%
          • Supports that the closer the genetic relationship the more likely an individual will develop UD
          • not everyone has been a twin
            • Should be 100%, so genetics cannot fully explain UD - we inherit a pre-disposition to UD however, environmental stress factors may act as a trigger.
              • Supports that the closer the genetic relationship the more likely an individual will develop UD
      • Imbalance in neurotransmitters (noradrenalin & serotonin) 
        • Teuting et al
          • Studied the levels of a specific compound released by an enzyme whilst breaks down S & N in urine
            • Found that depressed people had significantly lower levels of this compound than non-depressed people
              • Supports that low S + N is a cause of UD
                • Only states that there is a relationship
              • Only states that there is a relationship
      • HORMONES
    • Cognitive Explanation
      • automatic thoughts
        • Unpleasant thoughts that repeatedly remind depressed individuals of their inadequacy & hopelessnes. E.g. “I will never amount to anything”
          • Lloyd and Weaver
  • Bipolar
    • Depression
      • Unipolar
        • withdrawal from social life, loss of appetite
        • poor concentration, thinking about suicide
      • Biological Explanation
        • GENETICS
          • McGuffin
            • MZ: 46%
            • DZ: 20%
            • not everyone has been a twin
              • Should be 100%, so genetics cannot fully explain UD - we inherit a pre-disposition to UD however, environmental stress factors may act as a trigger.
          • Imbalance in neurotransmitters (noradrenalin & serotonin) 
            • Teuting et al
              • Studied the levels of a specific compound released by an enzyme whilst breaks down S & N in urine
                • Found that depressed people had significantly lower levels of this compound than non-depressed people
                  • Supports that low S + N is a cause of UD
            • HORMONES
          • Cognitive Explanation
            • automatic thoughts
              • Unpleasant thoughts that repeatedly remind depressed individuals of their inadequacy & hopelessnes. E.g. “I will never amount to anything”
                • Lloyd and Weaver
        • Increase in work activity, sexual activities
        • high levels of energy, little sleep
        • Delusional and reckless thoughts 
        • lack of social inhibition
      • Sleep disturbances
        • no interest in everyday activities
          • Increase in work activity, sexual activities
          • high levels of energy, little sleep
          • Delusional and reckless thoughts 
          • lack of social inhibition
          • 5 symptoms for at least two weeks
            • no interest in everyday activities
              • Sleep disturbances
                • Problems with self report
                  • Wrong treatment
                    • Skill of therapist
                      • 5 symptoms from unipolar for 2 weeks & having 4 manic symptoms for a least a week 
                • 5 symptoms from unipolar for 2 weeks & having 4 manic symptoms for a least a week 
                  • Problems with self report
                    • Wrong treatment
                      • Skill of therapist
                    • People inherit a genetic pre-disposition for unipolar depression passed on through families. Concordance rates in these families will be higher than the gen. pop.
                    • High level of cortisol released by the adrenal gland has been found to be a cause of UD. People can respond to a stressful event by becoming depressed.
                      • Southwick
                        • People with UD have high levels of C in their system even when the stressful event has gone 
                          • when C is reduced, an individual’s UD also reduces. 
                            • CAUSALITY
                              • Reductionist
                                • neglects influence of env factors
                                • Deterministic
                                  • no way to control UD
                    • Southwick
                      • People with UD have high levels of C in their system even when the stressful event has gone 
                        • when C is reduced, an individual’s UD also reduces. 
                          • CAUSALITY
                            • Reductionist
                              • neglects influence of env factors
                              • Deterministic
                                • no way to control UD
                    • Psychodynamic Explanation
                      • INADEQUACY
                        • If a child has a critical or over bearing parent it is likely the child will never please the parent. 
                          • May cause depression because the individual is always setting targets they may not able to achieve.
                    • Person regresses to the oral stage as they did not deal with feelings of rejection as a child. 
                      • LOSS
                        • Psychodynamic Explanation
                          • INADEQUACY
                            • If a child has a critical or over bearing parent it is likely the child will never please the parent. 
                              • May cause depression because the individual is always setting targets they may not able to achieve.
                    • Regression to this stage as an adult means they are not able to deal with loss.
                      • Person regresses to the oral stage as they did not deal with feelings of rejection as a child. 
                        • LOSS
                      • Thus they have depression
                        • Regression to this stage as an adult means they are not able to deal with loss.
                        • Maier and Lachman
                          • questioned 3000 adults
                            • Gave evidence to support a relationship between early loss & depression
                              • cannot predict that early loss causes depression.
                        • Gave evidence to support a relationship between early loss & depression
                          • cannot predict that early loss causes depression.
                        • questioned 3000 adults
                          • Klein
                          • identified personality traits which are commonly shown by people with depression
                          • Dependency on others,  low self esteem &belief they have to be perfect
                          • supports parents can cause depression in individuals. 
                          • found that depressed people recall unpleasant experiences easily than positive ones & select pessimistic statements in story telling tests. 
                            • Supports the idea that depressed people think more negatively & use negative schema’s.
                              • attempts to explain the actual cause of unipolar depression
                                • Reductionist
                          • Supports the idea that depressed people think more negatively & use negative schema’s.
                            • attempts to explain the actual cause of unipolar depression
                              • Reductionist

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