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  • Depression
    • Beck's Cognitive Triad 1963
      • caused by negative self schemas which maintain the cognitive triad
        • for sufferers of depression, these thoughts occur automatically and are symptoms.
      • Negative views about the future (i'll never be good at anything)
      • Negative views about oneself (I'm worthless and inadequate)
      • Cognitive biases
        • depressed people are more likely to focus on the negative aspects of a situation while ignoring the positives. these distort information which is a process called cognitive bias
        • types of cognitive bias
          • over generalisation
            • making a sweeping conclusion based on a single event EG: i failed my end of unit test so i will fail all my a levels
          • catastrophising
            • exaggerate a minor set back and believe its is a complete disaster EG: i failed 1 unit exam so i am never going to uni or getting a good job
    • Ellis's ABC Model
      • Explains what is required for good mental health.
        • good mental health is a result of rational thinking which allows people to be happy and pain free.
        • depression is a result of irrational thinking which prevents us from being happy
      • A
        • Activating event
          • EG: a friend passes you on the corridor as they ignore you despite you saying hello
        • B
          • Beliefs
            • the interpretation of the event. Rational or irrational.
              • EG: rational interpenetration= they didn't hear you. irrational= your friend dislikes you and never wants to talk to you again.
          • C
            • Consequence
              • rational beliefs lead to healthy emotional outcomes. irrational ones lead to unhealthy outcomes
                • EG: rational=i will talk to my friend later and see if they are okay. Irrational= i will ignore my friend because they do not want to talk to me.
    • Evaluation of cognitive approach
      • Strength: Practical application. developed treatments such as CBT and Rational Emotive behaviour therapy. they attempt to identify irrational, negative thoughts and is successful.
      • Issue: Does not explain where irrational thoughts originate from. A persons depression could cause the neg effects.
      • Issue: Alternative explanations. Biology, genes and neurotransmitters.
        • Role of serotonin and drug therapies that are effective casting doubt.
      • Strength: Research evidence. Boury 2001 found patients with depression are more likely to misinterpret info and and feel hopeless about their future
    • Treating Depression
      • Beck's CBT
        • Help patient identify negative thoughts in relation to themselves, the world and their future using Beck's triad.
          • Patient and therapist work together to CHALLENGE these thoughts by discussing EVIDENCE for and against them.
            • The patient will be encouraged to test the validity of their negative thoughts and may be set homework to challenge the thoughts.
      • Ellis's Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.
        • Developed the model to include D=Dispute and E=Effective.
          • Challenge irrational thoughts through dispute.
            • Therapist will DISPUTE patients irrational thoughts to replace them with more EFFECTIVE beliefs and attitudes.
              • Different types of dispute.
                • LOGICAL DISPUTE= questions logic of thoughts. 'do the way you think about that situation make sense?'
                • EMPIRICAL DISPUTE= seeks evidence for a persons thoughts
      • Evaluation of the Cognitive Approach to treating depression.
        • Requires motivation
        • Overemphasis on the role of conditions.
  • these maintain the negative triad.


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