Depression (clinical psychology)

  • Created by: megknox
  • Created on: 10-01-19 20:39
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  • Depression
    • Diagnosis (DSM-5)
      • 5 or more, including depressed mood
        • diminished interest
        • weight loss or gain
        • insomnia or hypersomnia
        • fatigue
        • feelings of worthlessness
        • Recurrent thoughts of death
    • Physiological Theories
      • Neurotransmitters
        • Monoamine Hypothesis
        • Intervention
          • Antidepressant Drugs
            • E.g. SSRIs for serotonin
      • Brain Structure/Function
        • Right Frontal Lobe more active than left
          • right: processing emotion
          • Left: processing language
        • Brain imaging studies
    • Psychological Theories
      • Psychodynamic
        • Sigmund Freud
        • Anger turned inward
          • reduces self-esteem making us vulnerable to depression
        • following real or imagined loss
        • re-experience childhood loss
        • most likely to become depressed when super-ego is dominant
        • Intervention
          • Emotionally Focused therapy
            • tries to resolve unconscious conflict
            • Separate self from loss
    • Behavioural
      • Operant Conditioning
        • inadequate/insufficient reinforcement
          • Extinction
        • Reduced frequency of reinforcement
        • Evidence is mainly Correlational
      • Classical Conditioning
        • Learned Helplessness
          • Seligman (1975)
          • person learns that their attempts to escape negative situations make no difference
            • Depression occurs
            • Become passive
            • Endure negative situations
              • Even when they can get out
          • Repeatedly endures adverse stimuli
    • The Cognitive Model
      • Beck (1967)
      • Cognitive Triad
        • Views about self, world and future
      • Negative Automatic Thoughts
        • Result from Schemas developed in early life (triad)
        • instant
      • Errors in logic
        • negative biases in information processing
          • All or nothing
          • focus on worst aspects
          • jump to conclusions
          • over generalisations
      • Intervention
        • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

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