Depression - New spec

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  • Depression
    • Types
      • Clinical
        • 3+ symptoms
        • 2 months
      • Major
        • 1+ symptoms
        • Constant depression
    • Unipolar
      • Behavioural
        • Fatigued
        • Reduced interaction
        • Weight changes
        • Poor hygiene
        • Disturbed sleeping patterns
      • Emotional
        • Loss enthusiasm
        • Sad/hopless
        • Feel worthless
      • Cognitive
        • Delusiions
        • Hallucinations
        • Can't concentrate
        • Poor memory
        • Thoughts of death
    • Bipolar
      • Behavioural
        • High energy levels
        • Reckless
        • Talkative
      • Emotional
        • High moods
        • Irritable/fustrated
        • Lack of guiltt
        • Low self esteem
      • Cognitive
        • Irrational thoughts
        • Polarised thinking
        • Dwelling on negative thoughts
    • Cognitive explanation
      • Faulty thinking
        • Catastrophisisng
        • Polarised thinking
        • Over-generalising
        • Faulty schemas
      • Beck's negative triad
        • Negative views about the world
        • Negative views about the future
        • Negative views about self
      • Ellis' ABC model
        • A: Activating event
        • B: Beliefs
        • C: Consequence
      • Evaluation
        • Evidence for cognitive vulnerability = depression
        • Subjective
        • Success with CBT
        • Includes other aspects
        • Can't explain/ treat mania
    • Alternative explanations
      • Biological
        • Genetic
          • Inherited
          • Wender (1986) - adopted children
        • Biochemical
          • Low levels of serotonin
      • Behavioural
        • Learned helplessness
        • Negative life events
        • Coleman (1986) - low rates positive reinforcement
    • Cognitive treatments - REBT
      • Makes thoughts more rational & positive
      • Optimistic thinking
      • P assesses the truth of their negativity
      • P becomes more realistic
      • Lincoln (1997) - 19 patients
      • David (2008) - 14 weeks v. drugs
      • Evaluation
        • Few side effects
        • Cost effective
        • Long term
        • Patient too dependant on therapist
        • Unsuitable if difficulty concentrating
        • Unsuitable if lacking verbal skills
    • Other treatments
      • Drugs
        • Increase serotonin production
        • Side effects
        • Time to act
          • Need to convince patients to keep taking them
        • Cheap
        • Easy to prescribe
        • Don't need a therapist
      • ECT
        • Electrically stimulates brain
        • Short-lived positivity
          • Allows time to apply other treatments
        • Side effects - memory loss
        • Used as last resort

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