Topic 4: Demography (notes)

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Demography
    • Births
      • Total fertility rate
        • Risen since 2001 to 1.84 by 2006
        • More women are remaining childless
        • Women are postponing having children
          • Average age = 29.6
      • Reasons for the decline in the birth rate
        • Changes in the position of women
          • Equality
          • Educational opportunities
          • Paid employment
          • Attitudes to family life
          • Divorce
          • Birth control and abortions
        • Decline in IMR
          • 1990 = 154 (15% of babies died within their first year
          • 20th it started to fall
            • Improved housing and sanitation
            • Nurtition
            • Knowledge of hygine
            • Fall in marriages
            • Improved services for mothers and children
        • Economic liabilities?
          • Laws
            • Banning  child labor
            • Schooling
            • Economically dependent
          • Changing norms
            • Becoming more materialistic
        • Child centerdness
          • Now socially constructed
          • 'quantity' > 'quality'
          • Fewer children = more attention and resources  on these few
        • Fewer trends in birth rates
          • Mothers from outside the UK account for 22% of the births (2005)
          • Births per year up to 2041 = 700-720,000
      • Effects
        • The Family
          • Women are more likely to work
          • Middle class family may be able to afford a larger family and still work
        • Dependency ratio
        • Public service and policies
          • Fewer children = fewer services may be needed
            • Schools
            • Maternity and child care
    • Deaths
      • Fallen since 1900 - 19>10 in 2007
      • Falling from 1870 to 1930. Rose in the 1930's and 40's
      • Reasons
        • Improved nutrition
        • Medical improvements
          • NHS - 1949
        • Public health measures and environmental improvements
        • Other
          • Decline in dangerous occupations
          • Smaller families = less infections spreading
          • Great medical knowledge
          • Higher incomes = healthier lifestyle
      • Life expectancy
        • Males, UK , 1990 - 50
        • Females, UK, 1990 - 57
        • Males, UK, 2006 - 76.9
        • Females, UK, 2006 - 81.2
      • Aging population
        • Average age in the UK = 34.1 (1971)
        • 39..6 - 2007
        • 2031 - 42.6
        • People are living longer into older age
        • Hardly anyone dies early in life
        • Effects
          • Public servies
          • One-person pensioner households
          • The dependency ratio
          • Social construction that the aging population is a 'problem'
            • GRIFFITHS REPORT
              • Growing costs of health and social care for the growing number of old people
            • 'pensions time bomb'
            • 'Agism'
    • Migration
      • Until the 80's those immigrating were lower than those emmigrating
      • 1900 the largest group immigrating were the Irish
      • 50's black Caribbean began to arrive in the UK
      • 2001 - ethnic minorities accounted for 7.9% of the population
      • Emigration
        • 'Push factors'
          • Economic reasons
          • Unemployment
        • 'Pull factors'
          • Better opportunities abroad
          • Higher wages
        • 1900 - emigrate - USA, Canada ect
      • Migration patterns
        • 1994-2004 imigration rose from 314,000 to 582,000 annualy
        • 1994-2004 emigration rose from 238,000 to 360,000 annualy
        • 2004 net migration = 223,000 (highest since 1991)

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Families and households resources »