Sociology family/household demography

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  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 19-04-13 08:37
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  • Demography
    • Births
      • Birth rate= the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year
        • Decline in Birth rate- 1900 England's rate was 28.7, in 2007 it was 10.7
        • Baby booms: 1920s, 1940s, and 1960s
      • Total Fetility Rate= the average number of chldren women will have in their fertile years (15-44)
        • Decxline in Fertility rate
      • These changes in Fertility and Birth rates show that more women are remaining childless than before and women are postponing having children
        • Reasons for the decline
          • Changes in the position of women
            • Women now see a life apart from the traditional role of housewife/mother
              • Can pursue a career
            • More access to abortion and reliable contraception
          • Decline in Infant Mortality rate
            • Infant Mortality Rate= the number of infants who die before their first birthday, per thousand babies born alive, per year
              • Before families used to have more children to replace the ones who died
            • Infant Mortality Rate has fallen due to: improved housing/sanitation, better nutrition, improved services for women and children etc
          • Children have become an economic liability (before they were able to earn wages)
          • Child centredness- parents now have fewer children but lavish more attention on these few
        • Effects of the chnages in fertility
          • Smaller familes mean that more women can go out to work
          • Dependency Ratio= the relationship between the size of the working population and the size of the non-working part of the population
            • Fall in number of children reduces the 'burden of dependency'
          • Public Services and Policies are affected eg fewer schools needed
    • Deaths
      • Decline in Death Rate
        • Reasons for the Decline
          • Improved Nutrition
            • McKeown (1972) found that improved nutrition accounted for up to half the reduction in death rates
              • However, this doesnt explain why females live longer (they usually recieve a smaller share of food)
          • Medical Improvements
          • Public health measures eg Clean Air Acts
          • Social changes eg decline of dangerous jobs like mining
      • The Ageing Population, there are fewer young people and more old people
        • Effects of an aging population
          • Public Services: older people consume a larger proportion of services such as health/social care
          • One-person pensioner households: now 14% of all households
          • The Dependency Ratio- increased burdern on working population
    • Migration
      • Imigration= movement into an area or society
        • Uk has always had more people leaving than arriving
      • Emingration= movement out
      • Net Migration= difference between the numbers of immgrating and the numbers of emmigrating


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