Births

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  • Births
    • Reasons for decline in birth rate
      • Changes in the position of women
        • Legal equality to men (they can vote or the Pay Act)
        • Increased educational opportunities - girls do better at school than boys
        • More women in paid employment
        • Changes in attitudes to family life and women's role
        • Easier access to divorce, with reliable contraception and access to abortion
      • Decline in infant mortality rate, the IMR in the UK began to fall because:
        • Improved housing and better sanitation, such as flush toilets and clean drinking water, reducing dieseases
        • Better nutrition
        • A fall in the number working will improve the health of the babires
        • Improved serves for mothers and children, such as antenatal and postnatal clinics
        • Better knowledge of hygiene, child health and welfare, often spread via magazines
      • Children have become an economic liability
        • Laws banning child labour, introducing cumpulsary education in 1880 and raising the school leaving age meaning they become economically dependant on their parents
        • Changing norms about what children have a right to expect from their parents in material terms
          • The cost of bringing up a children has increased
    • Effects of changes in fertility
      • The family
        • Smaller families mean that women are more likely to be free to go out to work
      • Dependency ratio
      • Public services and policies
        • A lower birth rate has consequences for public services
          • Fewer schools and maternity and child health services may be needed. It has implications for the cost of maternity and paternity leave or types of housing that need to be built

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