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  • De-individuation Theory
    • Le- Bon
      • combination of anonymity, suggestibility and contagion can influence on individual
        • individual loses self-control and incapable of acting in a way that goes against personal and social norms
    • De-individuation
      • lowered self-evaluation and decreased concerns about evaluation for others
      • increase in behaviour that would normally be inhibited
      • anonymity can be caused by uniforms
        • zimbardo
          • male students
          • half prison guards, half prisoners
            • guards wore a uniform and dark glasses
              • within hours guards began to harass prisoners
                • taunting them with insults
          • diminished awareness of our own individuality
          • anti-social behaviour is based on a lack of guilt or shame
      • faceless crowd
        • Mullen analysed newspaper articles of lynching's in USA
          • the more people the more savage killings
      • reduced private self-awareness
        • believed that anti-social behaviour in a crowd was due to an individual not focusing on their attitudes and moral standards
        • when they submerge themselves in a group the lack of self awareness leads to them not regulating their own behaviour
    • evaluation
      • Postmes and spears meta- analysis of 60 studies
        • insufficient evidence
        • not a common correlation between anonymity and anti social behaviour
          • giving money anonymously
      • pro-social behaviour
        • can be increased by de-individuation
          • spivey et al
            • due to situational factors
              • eg prosocial environmental factors of a prosocial model led to altruistic acts such as giving money than anti-social behaviour eg electric shocks
      • online de-individuation
        • francais found that adolescents were more likely to speak out over the net
        • real life application
      • gender bias
        • Diener
        • females and males respond differently to de-individuation
        • males more likely to experience disinhibition than females in a group
          • evolution
      • real life application
        • 10 out of 21 cases of suicides had been urged on by a crowd
        • mann et al
        • occurred at night when crowd large and great distance from the individual


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