Definition of development

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  • Created by: alyshia1
  • Created on: 09-02-16 16:34
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  • Definition of development
    • Economic development
      • This type of development was a priority in the 1950/60s
      • An increase in the countries level wealth
        • This could be the decrease in the numbers employed in agriculture and a rise in manufacturing and services
      • Measured by Gross Domestic Product
        • Which would allow for clear trends
          • But doesn't show the inequalities within countries
    • Social development
      • Priority in the 1970/80s
        • Looking at the demographic characteristics of a country- their infant mortality rate or life expectancy
      • This includes a wide range of changes affecting the quality of life of a population
        • Such as education, healthcare, status of women ect
        • Often framed in terms of whether people are able to be and do things desirable in life
          • Being- well fed, sheltered, healthy            Doing- Work, eduction voting ect.
      • Came about when it was discovered that economic development was unpractical i.e there was huge inequalities within countries
    • Sustainable development
      • "Meets the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations meeting their own" Brudtland report
      • Came about in the 1990s/2000s
        • When climate change became an important issue
          • Increase drought in Africa- especially the Horn of Africa
            • Depletion of the ozone layer
        • It features social, economic and environment as developments of  a country
          • A country must have all three before they can be classed as sustainable developed
        • Looking into the well being and happiness of a countries population as well as the environment
          • Indicators like Happy planet index
    • Development gap
      • This is the gap between countries that are developed and those that are classed as not i.e UK and the DRC
      • First highlighted in the Brant report (1980) which found that there was a north south divide (Brandt line)
  • Countries in the North had a high GDP, low death and infant mortality rates. has 25% of the population but 80% of the worlds income
    • Countries in the south had a low GDP, high death and infant mortality rates. Has 75% of the population but only 20% of the worlds income
      • Brandt report outlined possible solution to fix this.
        • Rules should be drawn to limit the influence of MNCs
          • MEDCs should give 0.7% of it GDP to Aid
      • Positives- Some countries have increased standard of living. Increase awareness of democracy
        • Negatives- Poverty has increased and population growth is not under control
    • First highlighted in the Brant report (1980) which found that there was a north south divide (Brandt line)
  • Rostow- modernisation theory
    • Believed that there was no gap instead there are 5 stages countries go through
      • However, he believed that economies will learn from each other and development would happen quicker but has this really happened?
        • He only focuses on economic development
  • Stage 1- traditional society. High levels of agriculture and outputs not traded
    • Stage 2- Pre conditions. Development of mining industry and some growth of savings and investment- DRC
      • Stage 3- Take off. Industrialisation and number of employees in agriculture declines- China
        • Stage 4- Drive maturity. Growth becomes self sustaining and increase in levels of technology
          • Stage 5- High mass consumption. High output levels, mass consumption and High employment in service sector
    • Believed that there was no gap instead there are 5 stages countries go through
      • However, he believed that economies will learn from each other and development would happen quicker but has this really happened?
        • He only focuses on economic development

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