Defending ourselves against disease

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  • Defending ourselves against disease.
    • Pathogens
      • Virus
        • Reproduce
        • All are pathogenic
        • Smaller than bacteria.
        • Take over and destroy cells.
          • Reproduce
        • Rarely release toxins.
      • Bacteria
        • Only some are pathogenic
        • Single celled and smaller than animal and plant cells
        • Binary Fussion.
          • May produce poisons.
      • Ways to prevent spreading infections: Hand washing Disinfectants Cleaning
      • Defence
        • 1st line
          • Skin-acts like a barrier
          • Blood clots and forms a scab
          • Mucus
          • Stomach acid
        • 2nd line
          • White blood cells
            • Lymphocytes
              • Produce antibody and they attach to the antigen
                • Antibodies are protiens that kill BOTH bacteria and viruses
                  • Antibiotics are drugs that kill ONLY bacteria in the body
                  • Antiseptic is a liquid which kills micro-organisms in the environment
              • Produce antitoxins. These counteract the toxins
            • Phagocytes
              • Engulf and digest the pathogen
      • How are diseases spread?
        • Direct contact
        • Droplet infection
        • Contaminated food and drink
        • Break in the skin


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