Defence Against Disease (with Acute Inflammation)

Acute Inflammation bit reads down, then up, then down, then up :)

  • Created by: Samantha
  • Created on: 24-01-13 20:04
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  • Defence Against Disease
    • Non-Specific Defence Mechanisms
      • Barrier Mechanisms
        • Skin, mucus lining of respiratory passages, blood, natural antiseptic in eyes.
      • Other non-specific mechanisms
        • Stomach acid and proteolytic enzymes.
        • Phagocytosis
    • Specific Defence Mechanisms (activated by antigens on pathogens surface).
      • Cell-mediated immunity (T Cells)
      • Antibody-mediated immunity (B Cells)
    • Acute Inflammation (localized response to injury/infection)
      • When tissue is damaged, pathogens may enter body. Cells release chemicals (e.g. histamine) which act as inflammatory medicines. Chemicals cause increase in blood flow and permeability of capillary.
        • Area becomes flooded with fluid and blood clotting elements-causes swelling/redness.
          • Tissue cells also release chemicals (e.g. chemokines) that attract phagocytic white blood cells such as neutrophils/macrophages.
            • Phagocytosis begins when macrophages/neutrophils recognize invading pathogens.
              • Cell membrane of macrophage fuses around single bacterium trapping it in cellular compartment called a phagosome.
                • Phagosome fuses with lysosome to form phagolysosome. Bacterium broken down/digested. Macrophage absorbs useful material and expels rest.
                  • Anti-inflammatory factors begin to work so inflammation doesn't continue longer than necessary.
                    • Swelling reduces and skin heals


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