immunity

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  • Created by: Blimi s
  • Created on: 16-05-16 17:24
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  • defence mechanisms
    • non specific
      • barrier to entry of pathogens
        • physical
          • protective covering- skin
          • epithila covered in mucus
            • pathogens get stuck to mucus, transported up the trachea by cilia gets swallowed into stomach
        • chemical
          • hydrochloric acid in stomach
            • low ph enzymes of pathogens die so organism dies
      • phagocytosis
        • phagocyte moves towards pathogen because pathogen releases chemical products
          • phagocyte attaches to pathogen
            • engulfs pathogen to form phagosome
              • lysosome fuse with vesicle
                • enzymes in lysosome break up pathogen by hydrolysis
                  • soluble products of pathogen get absorbed into cytoplasm
        • causes inflammation site of infection. because of dead pathogens and phagocytes. called pus
      • initial response
    • specific- lymphosite
      • cell mediated response-t lymphosites
        • antigens
          • humoral response- b lymphosites
            • mature in bone marrow
            • antigen of pathogen is taken up by b cell
              • b cell present the antigens
                • t helper cells attach to antigen activating it
                  • b cells divide by mitosis to produca plasma cell
                    • produce antibodies that are specific to antigen
                      • antibody kill antigen primary immune response
                        • some b cells turn into memory cells can respond rapidly to future infection
                    • secrete antibodies directly. only last for a short while.
          • any part of organism that is recognised as non self by immune system
          • triggers antybody
            • humoral response- b lymphosites
              • mature in bone marrow
              • antigen of pathogen is taken up by b cell
                • b cell present the antigens
                  • t helper cells attach to antigen activating it
                    • b cells divide by mitosis to produca plasma cell
                      • produce antibodies that are specific to antigen
                        • antibody kill antigen primary immune response
                          • some b cells turn into memory cells can respond rapidly to future infection
                      • secrete antibodies directly. only last for a short while.
        • mature in thymus gland
        • responses to organisms own cell that has been invaded by foreign material
          • cancer cell
          • virus
          • transplanted material
            • t cells can recognise beacause they are antigen presenting cell
              • virus
              • cancer cell
        • phagocyte presents pathogens antigen on its surface
          • receptor on t helper cell fits exacly onto antigen
            • activate other t cells to divide by mitosis
              • t cell
                • stimulate b cells to divide
                • stimulate phagocytosis
                • kill infected cells
                  • produce a protein which makes holes in csm causes cell to become permeable so dies
                • develop into memory cells

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