1: Defeated Germany to Divided Germany 1945 - 1949

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  • Defeated Germany to Divided Germany 1945-1949
    • Wartime conferences - Yalta + Potsdam
      • From mid 1944 it was clear Germany would lose the war
        • They were surrounded by hostile forces in West and East
      • Yalta = Feb 1945
        • UN set up to help maintain world security + stability
        • Stalin appeared to agree to free elections
      • Potsdam = July 1945
        • By now relations between big 3 (USA, UK, USSR) had soured
          • Began to show differences in political ideology
        • Agreed Germany to be split into 4 'zones of occupation'
          • American, British, French + Soviet
          • Berlin still capital but divided by 4
        • Sowed the seed for cold war between capitalism + communism
        • Potsdam - agreed reparations would come from industrial equipment + machinery
          • Western allies keen to avoid problems from punishing Germany too harshly
          • USSR had not forgotten how Germany treated it
            • Took different approach to collecting reperations
          • USSR's asset stripping annpyed the West
            • The 2 sides were meant to trade resources but USSR never kept to this
      • Differences between the conferences
        • New leaders in both USA + UK
        • Potsdam - agreed reparations would come from industrial equipment + machinery
          • Western allies keen to avoid problems from punishing Germany too harshly
          • USSR had not forgotten how Germany treated it
            • Took different approach to collecting reperations
          • USSR's asset stripping annpyed the West
            • The 2 sides were meant to trade resources but USSR never kept to this
    • Living conditions 1945-1949
      • Millions of refugees flooded back to Germany
        • But food + fuel shortages occured
          • Rumours of cannibalism
      • 1946-1947 - food ration was lower than in WW2
        • Money became practically worthless
      • Eastern zone affected by flow of refugees
        • Large number of these had been freed from concentration camps
      • Immediately after war = resentment between allies + German population
        • Eastern zone - up to 2 million women raped by Soviet soldiers
          • Up to 90% pregnancies aborted at this time
        • Western zones - many Germans resented lifestyle choices of the west
      • Soldiers came back to find their wives mixed with other men
        • Some had so little money they turned to prostitution
          • Occupying forces provided large client base
      • Winter 1946-1947
        • Hit Germany hard
        • Severe food shortages - rations equal to those given in concentration camps
    • De-nazification
      • Process of getting rid of Nazi images + influence
      • In the East it was done thoroughly + ruthlessly
        • Those suspected of being Nazis imprisoned in 'special camps'
          • These were old concentration camps
          • Also used to detain Soviet soldiers who contracted STDs
        • 25% of 60,000 prisoners held 1948-1950 died from malnutrition + disease
      • In the West it was eventually abandoned
        • Not sure whether they wanted to punish or rehabilitate Nazis
        • Process became unworkable
          • Abandoned 1950s
        • Ex-Nazis then able to work in legal system + government
          • Too useful tp punish
        • Of 6000 SS men operating Auschwitz only 22 put on trial
          • Only 17 got prison sentences of 3 years to life
            • Only 5 of them executed
    • Increasing division
      • East
        • Small group of committed German communists sent back to East Germany
          • They had lived in exile in USSR
          • Led by Walter Ulbricht
        • Soviets allowed different political parties to exsist
          • But any trace of democracy was fake
        • KPD found it hard to get support
          • Many could remember Nazi's anti-communist propaganda clearly
          • Soviet Mmlitary administration forced them ito merge with SPD
            • They formed SED
        • SED introduced number of policies
          • These were set to transform society + economy of Eastern zone
          • They formed SED
          • Nationalised 60% business + industry by 1949
          • Education system dramatically reformed
        • Mass organisations set up for women
      • West
        • Political parties allowed to re-establish themselves
          • Main ones = Social Democratic, Communist, Christian Democratic Union, Free Democratic
        • Increasingly suspicious of Soviet intentions
          • Soviets distrusted the West
        • Marshall Plan
          • Aimed to revive western European economy
          • Would open up European market to USA
        • Within 4 years, $13billion had been pumped into the west
          • Results were impressive
          • Massive economic growth
        • Jan 1947 Bizonia created
          • Increased tensions with East - reunification less likely
          • June 1948 Deutschmark introduced in western zones
            • Resulted in Berlin Blockade June 1948 - May 1949
              • Stalin closed all routes from western zones to Berlin
              • Western allies supplied Berlin with supplies by air
          • April 1949 - French joined to create Trizonia
        • May 1949 - FRG formed
  • These were old concentration camps

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