Decision & Decision making (part 1 of thinking & Consciousness

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  • Decision making & Decision makers
    • Normative:   •Identifying the best choice given the state of the world & the individuals goals.         •Normative theories consider the decision maker as a 'maximiser' / 'optimizer'.   •Individuals who follow the normative rules are said to be rational
    • Descriptive: Characterizing how individuals actually make decisions & comparing them to normative standards. Choices that deviate from the normative are said to be irrational.
    • Prescriptive: Attempting to bridge the gap between normative & descriptive by helping individual make better choices.
    • Elements of a decision:        •Possible:    •states of the world    •courses of action   •outcomes
      • Influences:   •Beliefs/predictions about objective states and events in the world (including outcome states and means to achieve them)    •Desires and values that describe the consequences associated with the outcomes of possible actions.
        • Judgement is a vital part of the decision-process. •We need to consider the possible consequences of our actions prior to making decisions (by estimating event-outcome or action-outcome relationships).


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