Psychology debates

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  • Created by: jfinty
  • Created on: 12-03-15 13:52
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  • Debates
    • Nature-nurture
      • How important is each
        • Interact
      • Nativism
        • Twin studies
          • Gottesman and Shields
            • Schizophrenia 46% MZ 14% DZ
        • Adoption studies
      • Empiricism
        • Shared and unshared environments
          • Interaction of heredity and environement
            • Children create their own microenvironment
      • Blakemoore and Cooper
        • Environment is important to development of innate systems
          • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
      • Implications
        • Intelligence, aggression, schizophrenia
    • Free will and determinism
      • Determinism
        • Internal
          • Biological
            • Instinctive needs
            • Different parts of the brain
            • Hormonal system
            • Evolutionary forces
            • Genes
          • Psychic
            • Multiple  unconcious forces
              • Overdetermination
        • External
          • Environmental
            • Demonstrated by Milgram's situational variations
        • Evaluation
          • Compatable with scientific method
          • Reduces moral responsibility
      • Free Will
        • Internal agency independent of externally imposed forces
          • Soft determinsim
            • Free from coercion but not from causation
          • Hard determinism
            • Behaviour is caused by events outside of one's control
        • Libet
          • Determinism
            • Internal
              • Biological
                • Instinctive needs
                • Different parts of the brain
                • Hormonal system
                • Evolutionary forces
                • Genes
              • Psychic
                • Multiple  unconcious forces
                  • Overdetermination
            • External
              • Environmental
                • Demonstrated by Milgram's situational variations
            • Evaluation
              • Compatable with scientific method
              • Reduces moral responsibility
          • Concious decision was not the cause of beahviour but a consequence of brain activity
        • Evaluation
          • Inconsistent with the assumptions of science
          • Moral responsibility
    • Holism and reductionism
      • Holism
        • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
          • Gesalt psychology
            • Looked at the whole person, behaviour
              • Applied to perception (visual illusions - rule of closure, letters at start and beginning are right)
            • Insight learning
              • new behaviour not acquired through S-R links but process of insight
                • Kohler chimpanzees
      • Interactionist approach
        • Holisitic and interactionist = more complete picture of behaviour
          • Holism
            • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
              • Gesalt psychology
                • Looked at the whole person, behaviour
                  • Applied to perception (visual illusions - rule of closure, letters at start and beginning are right)
                • Insight learning
                  • new behaviour not acquired through S-R links but process of insight
                    • Kohler chimpanzees
    • Idiogrpahic and nomothetic
      • Idiographic
        • Individual cases
          • Case study, unstructured interviews,self-report, introspection and reflection.  Psycholanalsyis = dream analsyis and free association
        • Private, subjective and concious experiences; feelings; beliefs and values
        • Evaluation
          • Generalisations cannot be reasonably made to a wider population. (Freud)
          • Subjective flexible and unstandardised methods of research (unscientific)
            • Making replication, prediciton and control very difficult.
              • However, these are not the only goals of science. others are to describe and understand which is best done by the idiographic method
                • Evaluation
                  • Generalisations cannot be reasonably made to a wider population. (Freud)
                  • Subjective flexible and unstandardised methods of research (unscientific)
                    • Making replication, prediciton and control very difficult.
                      • However, these are not the only goals of science. others are to describe and understand which is best done by the idiographic method
                    • Findings can serve as a source of ideas or hypotheses for later study
                      • E.g. Paiget's work inspired much futher research into cognitive development
                    • Only takes one to dispprove
                      • E.g. Koluchova's study of deprived twins contrasted Bowlby's idea that maternal deprivation is irreversible
                        • Cases such as these show how idiographic approaches allow for research into naturally occuring unusual cases.
            • Findings can serve as a source of ideas or hypotheses for later study
              • E.g. Paiget's work inspired much futher research into cognitive development
            • Only takes one to dispprove
              • E.g. Koluchova's study of deprived twins contrasted Bowlby's idea that maternal deprivation is irreversible
                • Cases such as these show how idiographic approaches allow for research into naturally occuring unusual cases.
    • Overt behaviour
      • Behaviourist
        • Evaluation
          • Highly scientific due to implicationsof studying overt behaviour
          • Belief that humans and animals are the same is disputed

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