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  • Created by: Dom1234
  • Created on: 10-12-14 13:08
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  • De-individuation
    • Le Bon's Crowd Theory
      • Change when part of a crowd; through anonymity, suggestibility and contagion. Collectivist mindset takes possession of the individual
      • Reduced responsibility when part of a crowd. They are "faceless" and so can't be held accountable for their actions
      • People abandon their "social" and "moral" norms. As these are usually inhibited by negative evaluation by others. When faceless, this stops the evaluation.
      • Larger the group is, the greater feelings of anonymity.
    • POINT: Crowd's can lead to a person becoming De-individualized
      • Support; Mann et al    Suicide Jumpers
        • 10/21 cases, baiting had occurred, where they were urging the suicider to jump
      • Support; Mullen et al
        • Archival analysis to determine whether lynch mob killings could be accounted for in terms of self-attention processes breaking down
        • Analysed over 60 newspaper reports of lynching taking place, found as the size of mob increased, the more violence occurred from the mob
        • Findings could be explained through de-individuation as people became less attentive, more anonymity in the bigger crowd and thus self-regulation processes broke down leading to an increase in level of violence committed through deindividuation
          • Correlation so can't be sure of cause and effect
          • Data collected is in the past, can't test to see if the same result happens again
    • POINT: Not all De-individuation leads to aggressive behavior
      • Study: Johnson & Downing
        • Local group Norms.
          • Participants either wore clothes similar to the KKK clan; or Nurse's uniform
            • Were told they needed to give electric shocks to aid learning.
            • When dressed as KKK. Shocked more than the control condition. But Nurse's shocked less
              • People respond to the normative cues associated with the social context in which they find themselves
      • Francis et al
        • Adolescents reported feeling significantly more confortable seeking help with mental problems under deindividuated circumstances of internet chatrooms compared to personal appointment with a health professional
      • Spivey et al
        • Found there could be pro-social effects of De-individuation depending on situational factors
          • When Pro-social cues were present such as pro-social models. Particiapnts performed more significantly more altrustic acts and fewer anti=social acts compared to a control group
    • POINT: Gender differences in De-individuation
      • Study: Cannavale et al
    • IDA: Reductionist
      • Ignores role of biological factors and individual differences
        • Difference between peoples testosterone levels, brain physiology, genetics.
    • IDA: Culturally Bias.
      • Theory/ most of the supporting evidence is all based on western cultures and so can't be generalised to other cultures
    • REAL WORLD APPLICATION
      • increase in CCTV cameras. + People can see themselves on screen when in CCTV, this identifys them and takes away the feeling of anonymity
  • All these factors are thought to produce a state of de-individuation among the crowd
    • More frequent at night
      • 10/21 cases, baiting had occurred, where they were urging the suicider to jump
      • Bigger distance between jumper and crowd the more likely to urge
        • Larger the crowd the more likely that baiting would happen
    • Increase in aggression was only cited in Male participants not females,
      • Findings of other studies cannot be generalised across both genders?
      • Study: Cannavale et al
    • IDA: Deterministic
      • De-individuation
        • Le Bon's Crowd Theory
          • Change when part of a crowd; through anonymity, suggestibility and contagion. Collectivist mindset takes possession of the individual
          • Reduced responsibility when part of a crowd. They are "faceless" and so can't be held accountable for their actions
          • People abandon their "social" and "moral" norms. As these are usually inhibited by negative evaluation by others. When faceless, this stops the evaluation.
          • Larger the group is, the greater feelings of anonymity.
        • POINT: Crowd's can lead to a person becoming De-individualized
          • Support; Mann et al    Suicide Jumpers
            • Support; Mullen et al
              • Archival analysis to determine whether lynch mob killings could be accounted for in terms of self-attention processes breaking down
              • Analysed over 60 newspaper reports of lynching taking place, found as the size of mob increased, the more violence occurred from the mob
              • Findings could be explained through de-individuation as people became less attentive, more anonymity in the bigger crowd and thus self-regulation processes broke down leading to an increase in level of violence committed through deindividuation
                • Correlation so can't be sure of cause and effect
                • Data collected is in the past, can't test to see if the same result happens again
          • POINT: Not all De-individuation leads to aggressive behavior
            • Study: Johnson & Downing
              • Local group Norms.
                • Participants either wore clothes similar to the KKK clan; or Nurse's uniform
                  • Were told they needed to give electric shocks to aid learning.
                  • When dressed as KKK. Shocked more than the control condition. But Nurse's shocked less
                    • People respond to the normative cues associated with the social context in which they find themselves
            • Francis et al
              • Adolescents reported feeling significantly more confortable seeking help with mental problems under deindividuated circumstances of internet chatrooms compared to personal appointment with a health professional
            • Spivey et al
              • Found there could be pro-social effects of De-individuation depending on situational factors
                • When Pro-social cues were present such as pro-social models. Particiapnts performed more significantly more altrustic acts and fewer anti=social acts compared to a control group
          • POINT: Gender differences in De-individuation
            • IDA: Reductionist
              • Ignores role of biological factors and individual differences
                • Difference between peoples testosterone levels, brain physiology, genetics.
            • IDA: Culturally Bias.
              • Theory/ most of the supporting evidence is all based on western cultures and so can't be generalised to other cultures
            • REAL WORLD APPLICATION
              • increase in CCTV cameras. + People can see themselves on screen when in CCTV, this identifys them and takes away the feeling of anonymity
          • Assunmes when in a crowd everyone is going to act aggresively. This is not the case

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