Chapter 22: Darwin and The Origin of Species

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  • Darwinian View of Life
    • evolution- the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation
      • fossils- remain of organisms in past years
        • strata- the layers of the sediment rock that forms as new fossils are created
        • palenontology- study of fossils was developed, but Cuvier decided to base his findings upon catastrophorism stating these fossils were a result of bad catastrophes
      • uniformitarianism- mechanisms of change are constant over time, developed by Lyell
      • Lamark stated the idea of use and disuse and announced that limbs that were used became stronger and better, and those were not used deteriorated. also he suggested that organism could pass on modifications to its offspring
    • Darwin on his trip to the Galapagos Islands
      • by observing the finches, Darwin established that a new species could arise from adaptions
        • natural selection- based on these adaptions, individuals with certain traits tend to have a higher survival rate because of these traits
      • descent with modification- descendants of that ancestral organism lived in various habits over a million years
      • homology- similiar based on common ancestory
        • vesitgital structures- remants of functins that were once important to their ancestors  Untitled
        • homologus structures- variations between different species but they have the same common ancestor
          • show the pattern of the tree with evolutionary tree
    • convergent evolution- individual evolution of similar animals in different lineages
      • analogous- share common function but not ancestry
    • biogeography- distributions of species of Panagea some islands tend to have endemic species meaning that are not found anywhere in the world


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