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  • Czeisler
    • Background
      • Around 30% of Americans work shift patterns, and they have impacts on their physical/ mental health
    • Aims
      • Investigate job satisfaction/ staff turnover/ health/ productivity
      • Create a better work schedule for phase delay rather than phase advance
      • Assess impact of new work schedule
    • Method
      • Quasi-experiment
      • IV: shift pattern of workers
      • Field study as it was in workplaces
      • DV: sleep attitudes/ behaviours/ job satisfaction measured with question-naires
      • 85 males, age 19-68 (mean: 31.4). All worked on rotating shifts on Salt Lake Minerals, USA
      • Control group: 68 males on non-rotating shifts, same area, 19-56 (mean: 27.3)
    • Procedure
      • Ps' were on a phase advance pattern, which is harder to adjust to. The shift pattern had been used for 10y
      • Before: Ps' got question-naires on sleep-wake preference/ schedule preference/ job descriptive index for satisfaction/ health index
      • Question-naires given before change in shifts and 3 months after
      • After: Workers/ managers were given advice on sleeping patterns and an intervention was enforced. Shifts changed to phase delay, and a 21 day rotation rather than 7. Question-naires were given to review the intervention
    • Results
      • Before: response rate was 84%. "Rotators" had significantly more insomnia issues, and nearly 30% fell asleep at least once in the last 3 months at work. 80%+ said it took 2-4 days to adjust to sleep, the others never adjusted. 90% think shifts change too frequently
      • After: Shift change complaints went from 90% to 20% (they preferred 21 day patterns). There was better satisfaction/ health, and a reduction in staff turnover. There was a significant productivity increase
    • Conclusions
      • Phase delay shift work and time to adjust fits better with circadian rhythms
      • Changing shift patterns = improvement for employee and employer
      • Companies who rely on shift work (phase delay) might have increased productivity/ lower staff turnover/ higher satisfaction


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