CV system

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  • Cardiovascular system
    • Structure of the Heart
      • 3 vessels: Artery, vein, capillary
      • 2 atria, 2 ventricle, 1 septum
      • Valves prevent back flow of blood
    • Cardiac Conduction System
      • Cells send impulses to cause contractions
      • SAN, Atrial systole, AVN, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibre, Ventricular systole
      • Sympathetic/Para control heart beat
        • Cardiac Control Centre
          • Chemo, Baro, Proprio receptors
        • Heart rate must be inc. for pedestrianism as they are playing sport for rewards (for the first time)
    • Stroke Volume
      • Volume of Blood pumped out of the heart each beat
      • STARLINGS Law
        • The WC ppls SV would be higher as they do a lot more exercise so hypertrophy would have occurred sooner
    • Physical Activity on Health
      • Types of Disease
        • Heart Disease, High BP, Stroke, Cholesterol
          • During industrialisation, there was a large amount of air pollution which would have inc. the chance of diseases such as heart disease
        • In pre-industrial Britain, they wouldn't have been able to treat these diseases very well, so exercise was even more important
    • CV Drift
      • Dec. in SV and Aterial BP and a slow inc. in HR
      • After 10 mins of warm exercise
      • Maintain fluid intake before and during to reduce
        • If fluid is maintained, the exercise performed can be for a longer duration, so maximizing improvement
    • Vascular system
      • Carry O2 and nutrients to tissues and remove waste products
        • More O2 required for Mob Sports etc. by the WC because the sports are played at a higher intensity
      • Pulmonary and Systemic circulation
      • BP = BF x res.
    • Venous return
      • Skeletal, Respiratory pumps and pcoket valves
        • Venous return, and ejection fraction must inc.when training
    • Oxygen
      • 3% plasma, 97% Hb
      • OxyHb curve
      • Bohr Shift -> dec. pH, inc. temp, inc. PCO2
        • This would have occurred during industrialisation due to the inc. in fossil fuels in the air, which inc. the PCO2
    • Blood flow
      • Vascular shunt
      • Vasodilation and vasoconstriction
      • Pre-capillary sphincters = tiny rings of muscle


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