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  • Culture
    • 4 main senses of culture
      • Sometimes a state of mind. Someone become cultured if they move towards a goal of aspiration of human achievement.
      • Seeing other societies a superior to others as well as individuals as superior to others.
      • 'the collective body of arts and intellectual work within any one in society.'
      • 'the whole way of life of a people' - Ralph Linton (1945)
    • Types of culture
      • High culture
        • Refers to cultural creations that have a particularly high status.
        • Arbiters of cultural taste as the epitome of the highest level of human creativity. Opera and artwork would be examples.
      • Folk Culture
        • Refers to the culture of ordinary people, particularly those living in pre-industrial societies.
        • Singing traditional folk songs and traditional stories that have been passed down would be examples.
      • Mass culture
        • A product of industrial societies. Essentially a product of the mass media.
          • Popular feature films, soap operas and recorded pop music are all examples.
      • Popular culture
        • Includes any cultural products appreciated by large numbers of ordinary people with no great pretensions to cultural expertise.
        • TV programmes, pop music, mass-market films like the Harry Potter series, and popular fiction like detective stories are all example.
      • Subcultures
        • Refers to 'groups of people that have something in common with each others which distinguishes them in a significant way from other social groups.' (Thornton, 1997)
        • Communities that live close together and have a shared lifestyle, youth groups who share common musical tastes and enjoy the same leisure activities, people who share same religious beliefs are all examples.
      • Global culture
        • Implies that we are all becoming part of one all-embracing culture that affects all parts of the world.
      • Cultural Diversity
        • A concept relating to culturally-embedded differences in society.
          • Parekh (2006)
            • When members in society has distinct ways of life while still living broadly in dominant culture within a society.
              • Same members of a society rebelling against central principles.
                • Ethnic groups having long established communities adding diversity to the common way of life.
      • Consumer Culture
        • Culture based on cultural and economic factors related to things we consume and use in society.
        • Lury (1996)
          • Factors of consumer culture
            • Availability of wide range of consumer goods.
            • Shopping is seen as a leisure pursuit.
            • Being in debt is accepted as a social norm.
      • Hybrid Cultures
        • Cultures merge together to make hybrid cultures which merge norms and values.


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