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  • Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 08-06-13 01:58
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    • Area of debate
      • Europe/N. USA - debates driven by consequences of post 1945 economic boom
        • generated demand for LABOUR
          • lead to mass immigration
            • generated POST COLONIALSIM
              • controversial argument - even after independence citizens of former colonies are subject to a more insidious form of colonism
                • They are 'seduced' into internalising the world view of their former leaders
                  • Drawn into accepting the cultural superiority of WEST and inferiority of their own cultures
                    • Idea was put forward by FRANZ FANON & developed by EDWARD SAID
              • rejection of imperialist narratives in favour of ones drawn from the experience of the former colonised people
            • imigrants brought their own social relations, tradition religions and languages to new home
              • despite original intentions to stay temporarily, most became permanent residents and moved families over to join them
                • During 1960s - air travel meant migrants were able to reinforce their traditions by constant visits to original home
                  • This contrasted pre - 1940 migrants communites
                    • they gradually became separate from their home communities
                      • EG: losing native language after one generation
            • Doubts are raised overthe level of LEGITMACY given to immigrant social traditions
              • bitter controversy in US since arrival of Irish immigrants in 1840s
                • Supporters of US 'essentialist view' of identity - saw this as  THREAT to US identity
                  • Seen in context of language and religion
                    • Language - problem - US tradition has always seen the US as a monolingual society and state
              • HIspanic migration from South US in late 1990s
                • In US some states had large numbers of Hispanic minorities
                • Spanish language radio stations sustained Spanish as a living language for these migrants
                  • Argued for the use of Spanish formal status in public life - EG: Dade County MIAMI - some primary schools 100% Hispanic
                    • To counteract this Florida State Congress passed an act preventing the use of Spanish a language in public schools
    • Identity Politics - centre of debate
      • The key to any individuals existence is their identity as a member of a specific group in society
        • Large range of categories - ethnic, religious, linguistic
        • Common implication is that this specific identity overrides any common identity of class/citizenship
      • allowed the growth of different forms of particularism
        • distinct ways of defining a community that set it apart form the rest of the population
        • Ethncity - provided method for distinction - some groups in society share a common lang and religion
          • EG: Christian English speaking black Americans
    • Religion has become a dominant issue
      • Islam caused most controversy
        • Issues from Iranian Rev over politics, religion & state power - been carried over into other conflicts in Middle East and Afghan
          • As These conflicts involved major European powers, Muslim migrants in Europe have been more conscious of their Islamic nature
            • Process helped fund Islamic groups in these countries by Arab monarchies
              • Migrant communities have been more conservative and particular practices (EG dress code) than those in country of origin
                • Mirror image of this has been the emergence of hostile movement in the host communities
                  • These people seek to defend what is their own cultural identity
      • Recent focus on religion only partially obscured earlier conflict based on just ethnicity
        • conflict - sparked by presence of large non white migrant communities
          • extreme right groups attacked these communities as a source of cultural and racial degeneration
            • EG: BNP


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