mind map sociology 1

View mindmap
  • Culture, Identity and Socialisation
    • socialisation: the process of learning your own culture
      • theoretical views on socialisation
        • Functionalism: to functionalists the socalisation process is coercive, forcing us to accept the values and norms of society.
        • Postmodernism: Postmodernists believe that we live in a media saturated society and that because of that the ways we are socialised is controlled by the media and their owners.
        • Marxism: Marxists believe that we are socialised into society by being taught the norms, values and customs of our society and that these are created by the ruling class to brain wash the lower working class.
        • Social action: social action theorists believe that the way you are socialised affects your self and your identity and in turn the way you view the social world.
        • Feminism: feminists view is that we live in a patriarchal society that teaches that men are superior to women and about gender stereotypes and how they are used to further progress this idea in socialisation.
      • Methods of Socialisation
        • Media(secondary): the main means of mass communication around the world throughout different society
        • Religion(secondary): religion is an institution in which groups of people from around the world gather in holy places to pray and worship their gods.
        • Education(secondary): an institution where everyone learns the formal curriculum which will be based on the language and culture of society and reflects its values and also where you learn the norms of society
        • Workplace(secondary): an area where people go to complete tasks given by their boss in order to earn money.
        • Family(primary): an institution where you live and learn wit a group of people that you are related to trough blood.
        • Peer groups(secondary): a group of people that are seen to like you that you would communicate with on a daily basis and hang out with regularly.
      • methods of social control
        • formal
          • courts: they punish those that break the laws by either fining them sending them to prison or in sever cases death
          • government: they put laws and rules in place that improves and safeguards everyone's lives and are in charge of keeping the country together
          • Police: they enforce the laws set out by the government in order to protect society and keep everyone safe
        • informal
          • teachers: help to teach students the curriculum and punish any who break the rules by sending them to detention
          • peer: teaches you right from wrong through the use of group experiences either failure or succeeding
          • family: help to socialise their children and teach them the norms and values of society
    • Culture: the entire way of life of a particular society/country( the behaviours and beliefs)
      • 5 types of culture
        • subculture: a cultural group within a larger culture often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture. they develop their own norms and values regarding cultural political and sexual matters.
        • high culture: high culture encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic values which a society collectively esteems as art
        • popular culture: culture based on the tastes of ordinary people rather than on the tastes of the educated elite as is found usually in developed countries on a larger scale to the other culture.
        • consumer culture: a form of capitalism in which the economy is focused on the selling of consumer goods and spending money. basic traits can be summarised as the transformation of needs to desires.
        • global culture: the growing trend of cultural activities and products which become 'universal' and where its food films and other products have become identical across many countries. basic characteristic is the attraction of wealth.
      • 3 cultural theorists
        • Marshall (1998): culture is all that makes up human society which is socially transmitted not biologically transmitted and without which we would all be the same
        • Kidd (2002): "the features of culture e.g language, symbols, history, norms and values all influence the ways members of society live their lives
        • Giddens (1997): no culture would exist without societies. but equally no societies would exist with out culture. no one would be human
      • theorists views
        • marxism: they believe culture is an ideology which helps to emphasis all the main inequalities in society and that it is the main cause of social inequalities
        • functionalists: would see culture as being an important part of our society with a certain function - educating the people, strengthening social interactions, gaining perspective or expressing tendencies and feelings among humans.
        • feminists: believe that culture is another male creation that helps to oppress women and keep them under the control of men
        • interactionists: believe in the manifest and latent symbols that different cultures create to define things
        • postmodernism: think that   culture is not something created by a large group or society but is made up of the individuals within that society and what they believe
    • identity: ho we see ourselves and how others see us
      • theories on identity
        • Meads 'I and me': the I is the spontaneous Side of ourselves but we hide it due to other people and only show the Me
        • Cooley 'looking glass self':  he called the me side of our self the looking glass self referring to how we begin to view ourselves as if others eyes our mirrors.
        • Beckers 'labelling' theory: Becker stated that labelling someone with a label can lead to a self fulfilling prophecy and can lead that person to try to live up to it which becomes the master  status
        • Hoffman 'institutionalised': people become completely dependent on institutions that they can no longer function in the outside world
        • Giddens 'reflexive project': believes we are continually working and reflecting on ourselves to improve our identity
      • factors that affect identity
        • social class: defined as a group of people who have similar economic and social situation. this can effect peoples identity as they can become more unrefined or refined in their actions
        • gender: is defined as the state as being male or female. this can effect a persons identity as each gender is taught to and expected to behave in either masculine or feminine behaviour
        • age: a length of time a person has lived. can be defined as  a socially constructed timetable of behaviours which certain age groups act like and change their identity at each stage to be appropriate to their stereotypical age
        • disability: a persons inability to fully participate in everyday life which others take for granted. Murugami argued it can affect a persons identity as they can develop a negative self identity that makes it so they are unable to function    so they disable themselves
        • ethnicity: the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has common national and cultural traditions. it can affect a persons identity as it can change their beliefs religion and language which are all some of the major factors that affect identity


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Culture and Socialisation resources »